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Ubuntu 13.04 ships with an older version of the GNOME desktop in its archives. This is great for GNOME-fans wanting stability, less great for those wanting to try the latest release.

Thankfully the GNOME team make it easy to install/upgrade to GNOME 3.8 on Ubuntu 13.04 – and there are plenty of reasons why you might want to do that!

There are caveats aplenty – largely that some of the software is a little unstable – but chances are if you’re competent enough to upgrade your desktop you’re also okay to deal with whatever issues might arise.

Ubuntu 13.04 在它的存档中装载了 GNOME桌面的一个老版本。这对需要稳定性的GNOME-fans来说真的太棒了,但是对那些想尝试最新发布版的人来说就不那么棒了。

感谢GNOME团队使在Ubuntu 13.04上安装/升级到GNOME 3.8 变得容易——而且有充足的理由你会想要那么做!

有大量的警告——大部分是说一些软件会有一些不稳定——但是很可能的是,你既然有足够的能力升级你的桌面,你也会很好处理任何可能出现的问题。

How To Upgrade to GNOME 3.8 in Ubuntu 13.04

Add the GNOME 3 PPA

Before you skim-read any further make sure that you’re running Ubuntu 13.04. Y’know, the latest release. Better yet, run Ubuntu GNOME 13.04.

With that out-of-the-way, we’ll first add the GNOME 3 PPA to Ubuntu’s Software Sources. This can be done without using the command line but, for simplicity’s sake, it’s far easier to do so.

Open a new Terminal window and enter the following command carefully.

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:gnome3-team/gnome3

如何在Ubuntu 13.04中升级到 GNOME 3.8

添加 GNOME 3 PPA(Personal Package Archives)

在你进一步浏览之前,确认你正在运行的是Ubuntu 13.04。你一定知道 最新发布版 。但更好的是, 运行 Ubuntu GNOME 13.04.

对这个少见的版本, 我们先给Ubuntu的Software Sources增加GNOME 3 PPA这可以不用命令行就做到,但出于简单化的目的,这么做要容易的多。

打开一个新的Terminal 窗口,仔细输入下面的命令。

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:gnome3-team/gnome3

Upgrade or Install GNOME Shell

With the PPA added, you now need to do one of two steps depending on what you have installed.

If you don’t have GNOME Shell installed then run the following command in a new terminal, inputting your password where prompted:

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install gnome-shell ubuntu-gnome-desktop

As the various packages are installed the following screen will appear, asking you to choose which display manager – “login screen” – Ubuntu should use:

gnome

Decisions, Decisions…

升级或安装 GNOME Shell

在PPA添加以后,现在你需要根据你安装的东西做两个步骤中的一个。

如果你没有安装GNOME Shell,那么在一个新的终端程序中执行下面的命令,在提示的地方输入你的密码:

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install gnome-shell ubuntu-gnome-desktop

根据安装的各种包,将显示下面的界面,询问你选择哪一个显示管理器——“登录画面”——Ubuntu应该用:

gnome

决定,决定…

Both of these options will let you choose a session before logging on (so you can log in to Unity if you so wish). ‘lightdm’ is the Ubuntu default, but for a true GNOME experience, such as getting lock-screen notifications, you’ll want to opt for the GNOME Display Manager (known as GDM).

login screen display managers

LightDM and GDM side by side

If you do have GNOME Shell installed, or are using Ubuntu GNOME, run this command:

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

这两个选项都会让你在登录之前选择一个会话(所以如果你希望的话你可以登录Unity环境)。‘lightdm’是Ubuntu默认选项,但为了一个真实的GNOME体验,例如获得锁定屏幕通知,你要选择GNOME显示管理器(GNOME Display Manager也称作GDM )

login screen display managers

LightDM和 GDM 并排展示

如果你确实安装了GNOME Shell,或正在使用Ubuntu GNOME, 运行这个命令:

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

Optional Staging PPA for Extra Bits

If you feel super cautious you can also add the GNOME 3 Staging PPA. But – and it’s a big but that you must pay attention to – many components within it are unstable.

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:gnome3-team/gnome3-staging 
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

Reboot and Login

That’s it – you’re all done. The make sure everything goes as smoothly as possible you’ll want to reboot.

If you’re using the Unity’s default login screen click the Ubuntu logo in the user pod, choose the ‘GNOME’ session, then go ahead and login as normal.

sessions

Unity Greeter’s Session Selector

用于额外的比特的可选的Staging PPA

如果你非常谨慎,也可以增加 GNOME 3 Staging PPA 。但是它之中的很多组件是不稳定的 – 这是一个大问题你必须关注 。

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:gnome3-team/gnome3-staging 
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

重启并登录

就这么多——你已经全做完了。确保所有都尽可能非常的顺利,你就可以重启了。

如果你使用了默认的Unity登录界面,在用户区点击Ubuntu,选择 ‘GNOME’会话,然后继续并像正常情况登录。

sessions

Unity Greeter’s Session Selector

If you chose the GNOME display manager then choose ‘GNOME’ from the session drop-down before logging in.

If all has gone well you’ll now see something similar to this…

gnome

GNOME 3.8 Desktop in Ubuntu 13.04

如果你要选择GNOME显示管理器,那么就在登录之前从会话下拉菜单选择‘GNOME’。

如果一切都正常,你将会看到类似这样的界面…

gnome

Ubuntu 13.04中的GNOME 3.8 桌面

A Few Differences

Some differences to note when using GNOME Shell alongside Unity.

Firstly, you’ll see two ‘online accounts’ entries in System Settings. The left-hand one is Ubuntu’s fork. The right-hand is the GNOME version.

For integration with certain GNOME apps, including Documents, Contacts & Evolution and Calendar you’ll want to add your accounts to the right-hand version. For Shotwell, Empathy & Gwibber support you’ll need to use the left-hand version.

online-accounts

System Settings

Also ‘new’ in System Settings are entries for ‘Notifications’ and ‘Search’. Both are self-explanatory; the former lets you pick which apps can send notifications, while the latter concerns which applications/sources show results in the Activities Overlay.

一些不同

当随着Unity使用GNOME Shell时,一些需要注意到的不同。

首先,你会在System Settings看到两个“在线账户”入口。左边的是Ubuntu的。右边的是GNOME的版本。

为了与特定的GNOME应用集成,包括文档,联系人与Evolution邮件,还有日历,你会想将你的账户加到右边的版本。为了Shotwell相片管理, Empathy即时聊天和 Gwibber微博写作器支持,你需要使用左边的版本。

online-accounts

系统设置

同样System Settings中 ‘新鲜’的是 ‘Notifications’ 和‘Search’入口。二者都不言自明;前者使你选择可以发送通知的应用,而后者关心在叠加活动(Activities Overlay)中,哪个应用/资源显示结果。

Uninstalling GNOME 3.8

To uninstall the GNOME Shell desktop we need to do a few things.

First installed PPA Purge from the Ubuntu Software Center

Install PPA Purge

Next open a new terminal window and run the following command:

sudo ppa-purge ppa:gnome3-team/gnome3

Pay attention to any prompts that appear in the terminal during downgrade. If you also added the GNOME 3 Staging PPA (see above) you will also need to run:

sudo ppa-purge ppa:gnome3-team/gnome3-staging

Next remove GNOME Shell by running:

sudo apt-get remove gnome-shell ubuntu-gnome-desktop

Clear up any remaining stray applications not removed by the downgrade and removal, then reboot.

卸载GNOME 3.8

要卸载 GNOME Shell桌面,我们需要做一些事情。

首先从Ubuntu Software Center安装PPA Purge

安装 PPA Purge

下一步打开一个新的终端窗口,运行下面的命令:

sudo ppa-purge ppa:gnome3-team/gnome3

注意在降级过程中终端里出现的任何提示。如果你也安装了GNOME 3 Staging PPA (见上文),你还需要运行:

sudo ppa-purge ppa:gnome3-team/gnome3-staging

下一步通过运行下面命令卸载GNOME Shell:

sudo apt-get remove gnome-shell ubuntu-gnome-desktop

清除任何没有被降级与卸载移除的残留的应用,然后重启。

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