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MySQL is still the most popular open-source database, but it has been losing fans over the years – for good reason. We look at five practical motivations to dump the MySQL database.

Back in 2008, MySQL was rapidly growing in popularity when Sun Microsystems bought MySQL AB for approximately a billion bucks. The following year, Oracle scooped up Sun, and MySQL was part of the deal. MySQL users and developers started questioning the fate of the open-source database, and many of them began looking for alternatives.

Flash forward to 2013: Oracle didn’t kill off its former competitor, and MySQL remains the most popular open source database. Still, MySQL’s popularity is on the decline; as it loses its luster, viable database alternatives have started to shine. Let’s look at five good reasons not to use the former open source database standard, MySQL. (To see the other side of the argument, read Andy Patrizio’s article on the 5 reasons to stick with MySQL. Then make your own decision, and share it with us in the comments.)

MySQL仍然是最流行的开源数据库,但因为更好选择的出现在过去几年中它的粉丝不断流失。让我们来看一下换掉Mysql的五个动机。

早在2008年,MySQL还在迅速普及的时候,SUN用十亿美元收购了MySQL AB。接下来的一年,Oracle插足Sun,MySQL是交易的一部分。MySQL用户和开发者开始质疑的开源数据库的命运,而且他们中的许多人开始寻找替代品。

转眼到了2013:甲骨文没有杀死了昔日竞争对手,MySQL仍然是最流行的开源数据库。不过,MySQL的知名度在下降;当它失去了它的光彩,可替代的数据库方案已经开始闪耀。让我们看一下不使用前Mysql标准五个利好因素。(看一下另外的说法,读一下Andy Patrizio的文章《坚持MySQL的五个理由》,然后你自己做决定,并在评论里与我们分享。)

1. MySQL is not as mature as other relational database management systems.

MySQL did not start out as an RDBMS, but later changed direction to encompass more functionality. Older, more mature relational database management systems are still considered more feature-rich than MySQL. If you want a feature-rich RDBMS, you might check out PostgreSQL or closed source options, such as Oracle or Microsoft SQL Server.

PostgreSQL contributor Selena Deckelmann says that Postgres is seen as the right choice for new projects among Web developers who need a relational database. “With the JSON data type and PLV8, Postgres may become the default choice for NoSQL as well,” she says.

1. MySQL不像其他关系数据库管理系统般成熟.

MySQL开始时并不是作为一个RDBMS,但后来改变了方向包括进了更多的功能。随着时间的发展,一些成熟的RDBMS被认为比MySQL具有更丰富的功能。如果你想要一个功能丰富的数据库,你可以试一下PostgreSQL或闭源的选项,如Oracle或微软的SQL Server。

PostgreSQL的贡献者Selena DeckelmannPostgres的被视为Web开发者对关系数据库有需求的新项目的正确选择。“用JSON数据类型和PLV8,Postgres可能成为NoSQL的默认选择”,她说。

2. MySQL is open source… but only sorta

Technically, MySQL is an open-source database, but in practice, it no longer feels like it. Under Oracle’s umbrella, MySQL now has proprietary, closed-source modules. “MySQL remains alive on paper but Oracle’s foot dragging on development and refusal to release test cases for bugs and security patches for MySQL has reinforced its control over the code and sent hordes of open source developers to greener pastures,” Paula Rooney explains in her ZDNet article, Is it time for Oracle to donate MySQL to Apache?

MariaDB

It isn’t like you don’t have other open-source alternatives. MariaDB, a MySQL fork, remains “truly open source.” SkySQL, a MariaDB developer that merged with Monty Program Ab (MariaDB’s parent company) earlier this year, explains, “All code in MariaDB is released under GPL, LPGL or BSD. MariaDB does not have closed source modules like those you can find in MySQL Enterprise Edition. In fact, all the closed source features in MySQL 5.5 Enterprise Edition are found in the MariaDB open source version.”

2. MySQL是开源的...但只是有些而已

传统来说,MySQL是一个开源数据库,但是在实践中已经不是那种感觉了。在Oracle的大伞下,MySQL现在有专有的、闭源模块。“MySQL看上去仍然很活跃,但是Oracle却陷入开发进程之中,拒绝发布bug的测试用例,MySQL的安全补丁在代码上严格控制,将大量的开源开发人员分配到新绿洲。”Paula Rooney在ZDNet里解释说:是Oracle把MySQL捐献给Apache的时候了吗

MariaDB

除Mysql之外没有其他开源方案可选了吗,不是的。MariaDB是MySQL的一个分支,仍然是“真正的开源”。SkySQL和Monty Program Ab(MariaDB的合作公司)在今年年初合并了,声明如下:“MariaDB的所有代码都在GPL,LPGL或BSD协议下面发行,MariaDB没有如MySQL Enterprise Edition里的那些闭源模块。事实上,所有MySQL 5.5 Enterprise Edition里的闭源特性都可以在MariaDB开源版本里找到。”

3. MySQL’s performance doesn’t scale as well as its competitors

The MariaDB blog offers detailed benchmark results for recent MySQL vs. MariaDB releases, and, although the results were close, MariaDB came out ahead.

PostgreSQL contributor Selena Deckelmann says that Heroku Postgres makes Postgres more attractive for several reasons, including scaling. “They have arguably the largest hosted environment for Postgres, automatically handle scaling for your apps, and are supporting cool add-ons that make it easy to try out features before you figure out the DevOps situation locally,” she explains, adding, “They just announced support for PLV8, which allows you to run JavaScript in the database and take better advantage of the JSON datatype available in 9.2 and higher.”

3. MySQL性能方面的缩放性不如其竞争对手

MariaDB的官方博客的提供了MySQL、MariaDB最新版本的详细对比测试,虽然结果很接近,但MariaDB胜出

PostgreSQL的贡献者Selena Deckelmann说:Heroku Postgres因为几个原因使它更具吸引力,其中包括缩放性。“可以说他们已经运维了最大的数据库托管环境,可以自动处理应用程序的缩放,支持节点冷添加可以非常方便容易的尝试新特性”,她这样说,另外,她补充道:“他们刚宣布支持PLV8,允许你在数据库中运行JavaScript而且能更好地利用在9.2及更高版本中可用的JSON数据类型。”

4. MySQL is Oracle-owned instead of community driven

MySQL hasn’t changed direction dramatically since it was acquired by Oracle, but Oracle still owns it, which makes some developers nervous. “And, probably worst of all, it’s impossible for the community to work with the MySQL developers at Oracle,” Michael “Monty” Widenius, founder of MySQL and MariaDB, says.

Widenius notes that Oracle does not accept patches or provide a public roadmap. “There is no way to discuss with MySQL developers how to implement things or how the current code works,” he says. If an open source, community developed database matters to you, Widenius recommend MariaDB (duh!) because it is built on top of MySQL and offers more features, speed, and stability, with fewer security issues.

4. MySQL为Oracle拥有而不是社区

MySQL被甲骨文收购后没有显著的方面改变,但Oracle仍拥有它,这使得一些开发者很紧张。“也许,最糟糕的是,开发社区工作者和在Oracle的MySQL开发者一起工作是不可能的,”迈克尔“蒙蒂”纽斯,MySQL和MariaDB创始人这样说。

纽斯指出,Oracle不接受补丁或提供一个未来的路线图。“与MySQL开发者谈论如何实现或当前代码如何运行,这没门”,他说。如果一个开源社区开发的数据库对你很重要的话,纽斯推荐MariaDB(废话!)因为它是建立在MySQL之上的。而且它提供了更多的功能、速度和稳定性,安全问题更少。

5. The list of big names jumping ship is growing fast

At its June 2013 summit in Boston, Red Hat announced that it was breaking up with MySQL. Instead, Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) will ship with MariaDB. Fedora already announced that it would move from MySQL to the MariaDB fork with Fedora 19. Slackware Linux announced its move from MySQL to MariaDB in March 2013, and openSUSE made a similar announcement in January 2013.

It isn’t just the Linux distributions. In April 2013, the Wikimedia Foundation announced that Wikipedia, the world’s seventh most popular website, would be adopting MariaDB. In the announcement, Wikimedia Foundation Site Architect Asher Feldman explained that MariaDB’s optimizer enhancements and Percona’s XtraDB feature set were compelling reasons for the change. “Equally important, as supporters of the free culture movement, the Wikimedia Foundation strongly prefers free software projects; that includes a preference for projects without bifurcated code bases between differently licensed free and enterprise editions,” he added. “We welcome and support the MariaDB Foundation as a not-for-profit steward of the free and open MySQL related database community.” As technology journalist Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols (and contributor here at SmartBear) noted at the end of 2012, no matter how you feel about Oracle or open-source vs. proprietary software, “MariaDB’s better performance at one of the world’s busiest Web sites is going to draw attention from anyone running serious Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP/Python/Perl (LAMP) software stacks.”

So what do these big data, tech-savvy companies know that loyal MySQL users don’t? MySQL is no longer the only big fish in a small pond of database solutions. Instead, MySQL is up against its own Oracle-free, truly open source offspring, MariaDB, the increasingly popular PostgreSQL RDBMS, and a growing NoSQL market. If you haven’t dumped MySQL yet, there are plenty of reasons to reconsider.

5. 可选的方案越来越多

在2013年6月的波士顿峰会上,Red Hat宣布和MySQL分道扬镳,取而代之的是红帽企业版和MariaDB上了同一条船。Fedora已经宣布将在Fedora 19切换到MariaDB分支。Slackware Linux宣布在2013年3月将MySQL切换到MariaDB,而且OpenSUSE在2013年1月也作出了类似的声明

不止在Linux阵营,2013年4月,Wikimedia基金会宣布全球第七大受欢迎网站Wikipedia正在切换至MariaDB。在声明中,Wikimedia基金会站点的架构师Asher Feldman解释称,MariaDB的优化及增强Percona的XtraDB功能设置是切换的原因。“同样重要的是,作为自由文化运动的支持者,维基基金会更倾向于自由软件项目,那些在免费及企业版间没有授权及分支代码的项目。”他又补充到,“我们欢迎并支持MariaDB 基金会作为一个非盈利组织,尤其是在自由、开放以及MySQL相关的社区方面。”科技记者Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols(在这里以SmartBear的贡献者的身份在2012年底提到,不管你对Oracle或开源与专有软件的比较持什么看法,不管你正在使用的是Linux、Apache、MySQL、PHP/Python/Perl(LAMP)的什么组合,MariaDB在世界最繁忙的Web站点中的优良表现会一步步吸引着你的注意力。

那么大数据呢,技术娴熟的公司知道,MySQL的忠实用户清楚么? MySQL是不再是数据库解决方案小池塘里唯一的大鱼了,相反,MySQL正面临着Oracle免费版的挑战,真正的开源后裔MariaDB、日益流行的PostgreSQL关系型数据库以及 日益增长的NoSQL市场,如果你还没换掉MySQL,那现在有充足的理由重新考虑了。

About the author

Rikki Endsley writes for a variety of tech publications, is the community manager for USENIX, and is the managing editor of the association’s bi-monthly publication, ;login:. In the past, Rikki worked as the editor in chief of Ubuntu User magazine, associate publisher of Linux Pro Magazine, and managing editor of Sys Admin magazine. Follow her on Twitter at @rikkiends or visit rikkiendsley.com.

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Rikki Endsley各种科技刊物撰稿人,USENIX的社区经理,USENIX协会的双月刊主编、注册者。在过去,Rikki是Ubuntu User杂志的主编,Linux Pro杂志社副社长及系统管理员杂志的管理编辑。在Twitter@rikkiends或访问rikkiendsley.com联系他。

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