翻译于 2013/07/11 13:10
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MySQL is still the most popular open-source database, but it has been losing fans over the years – for good reason. We look at five practical motivations to dump the MySQL database.
Back in 2008, MySQL was rapidly growing in popularity when Sun Microsystems bought MySQL AB for approximately a billion bucks. The following year, Oracle scooped up Sun, and MySQL was part of the deal. MySQL users and developers started questioning the fate of the open-source database, and many of them began looking for alternatives.
Flash forward to 2013: Oracle didn’t kill off its former competitor, and MySQL remains the most popular open source database. Still, MySQL’s popularity is on the decline; as it loses its luster, viable database alternatives have started to shine. Let’s look at five good reasons not to use the former open source database standard, MySQL. (To see the other side of the argument, read Andy Patrizio’s article on the 5 reasons to stick with MySQL. Then make your own decision, and share it with us in the comments.)
MySQL did not start out as an RDBMS, but later changed direction to encompass more functionality. Older, more mature relational database management systems are still considered more feature-rich than MySQL. If you want a feature-rich RDBMS, you might check out PostgreSQL or closed source options, such as Oracle or Microsoft SQL Server.
PostgreSQL contributor Selena Deckelmann says that Postgres is seen as the right choice for new projects among Web developers who need a relational database. “With the JSON data type and PLV8, Postgres may become the default choice for NoSQL as well,” she says.
Technically, MySQL is an open-source database, but in practice, it no longer feels like it. Under Oracle’s umbrella, MySQL now has proprietary, closed-source modules. “MySQL remains alive on paper but Oracle’s foot dragging on development and refusal to release test cases for bugs and security patches for MySQL has reinforced its control over the code and sent hordes of open source developers to greener pastures,” Paula Rooney explains in her ZDNet article, Is it time for Oracle to donate MySQL to Apache?
It isn’t like you don’t have other open-source alternatives. MariaDB, a MySQL fork, remains “truly open source.” SkySQL, a MariaDB developer that merged with Monty Program Ab (MariaDB’s parent company) earlier this year, explains, “All code in MariaDB is released under GPL, LPGL or BSD. MariaDB does not have closed source modules like those you can find in MySQL Enterprise Edition. In fact, all the closed source features in MySQL 5.5 Enterprise Edition are found in the MariaDB open source version.”
除Mysql之外没有其他开源方案可选了吗，不是的。MariaDB是MySQL的一个分支，仍然是“真正的开源”。SkySQL和Monty Program Ab（MariaDB的合作公司)在今年年初合并了，声明如下：“MariaDB的所有代码都在GPL，LPGL或BSD协议下面发行，MariaDB没有如MySQL Enterprise Edition里的那些闭源模块。事实上，所有MySQL 5.5 Enterprise Edition里的闭源特性都可以在MariaDB开源版本里找到。”
The MariaDB blog offers detailed benchmark results for recent MySQL vs. MariaDB releases, and, although the results were close, MariaDB came out ahead.
MySQL hasn’t changed direction dramatically since it was acquired by Oracle, but Oracle still owns it, which makes some developers nervous. “And, probably worst of all, it’s impossible for the community to work with the MySQL developers at Oracle,” Michael “Monty” Widenius, founder of MySQL and MariaDB, says.
Widenius notes that Oracle does not accept patches or provide a public roadmap. “There is no way to discuss with MySQL developers how to implement things or how the current code works,” he says. If an open source, community developed database matters to you, Widenius recommend MariaDB (duh!) because it is built on top of MySQL and offers more features, speed, and stability, with fewer security issues.
At its June 2013 summit in Boston, Red Hat announced that it was breaking up with MySQL. Instead, Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) will ship with MariaDB. Fedora already announced that it would move from MySQL to the MariaDB fork with Fedora 19. Slackware Linux announced its move from MySQL to MariaDB in March 2013, and openSUSE made a similar announcement in January 2013.
It isn’t just the Linux distributions. In April 2013, the Wikimedia Foundation announced that Wikipedia, the world’s seventh most popular website, would be adopting MariaDB. In the announcement, Wikimedia Foundation Site Architect Asher Feldman explained that MariaDB’s optimizer enhancements and Percona’s XtraDB feature set were compelling reasons for the change. “Equally important, as supporters of the free culture movement, the Wikimedia Foundation strongly prefers free software projects; that includes a preference for projects without bifurcated code bases between differently licensed free and enterprise editions,” he added. “We welcome and support the MariaDB Foundation as a not-for-profit steward of the free and open MySQL related database community.” As technology journalist Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols (and contributor here at SmartBear) noted at the end of 2012, no matter how you feel about Oracle or open-source vs. proprietary software, “MariaDB’s better performance at one of the world’s busiest Web sites is going to draw attention from anyone running serious Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP/Python/Perl (LAMP) software stacks.”
So what do these big data, tech-savvy companies know that loyal MySQL users don’t? MySQL is no longer the only big fish in a small pond of database solutions. Instead, MySQL is up against its own Oracle-free, truly open source offspring, MariaDB, the increasingly popular PostgreSQL RDBMS, and a growing NoSQL market. If you haven’t dumped MySQL yet, there are plenty of reasons to reconsider.
不止在Linux阵营，2013年4月，Wikimedia基金会宣布全球第七大受欢迎网站Wikipedia正在切换至MariaDB。在声明中，Wikimedia基金会站点的架构师Asher Feldman解释称，MariaDB的优化及增强Percona的XtraDB功能设置是切换的原因。“同样重要的是，作为自由文化运动的支持者，维基基金会更倾向于自由软件项目，那些在免费及企业版间没有授权及分支代码的项目。”他又补充到，“我们欢迎并支持MariaDB 基金会作为一个非盈利组织，尤其是在自由、开放以及MySQL相关的社区方面。”科技记者Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols（在这里以SmartBear的贡献者的身份）在2012年底提到，不管你对Oracle或开源与专有软件的比较持什么看法，不管你正在使用的是Linux、Apache、MySQL、PHP/Python/Perl（LAMP）的什么组合，MariaDB在世界最繁忙的Web站点中的优良表现会一步步吸引着你的注意力。那么大数据呢，技术娴熟的公司知道，MySQL的忠实用户清楚么？ MySQL是不再是数据库解决方案小池塘里唯一的大鱼了，相反，MySQL正面临着Oracle免费版的挑战，真正的开源后裔MariaDB、日益流行的PostgreSQL关系型数据库以及 日益增长的NoSQL市场，如果你还没换掉MySQL，那现在有充足的理由重新考虑了。
About the author
Rikki Endsley writes for a variety of tech publications, is the community manager for USENIX, and is the managing editor of the association’s bi-monthly publication, ;login:. In the past, Rikki worked as the editor in chief of Ubuntu User magazine, associate publisher of Linux Pro Magazine, and managing editor of Sys Admin magazine. Follow her on Twitter at @rikkiends or visit rikkiendsley.com.