5 个最佳的 Linux 桌面环境 已翻译 100%

oschina 投递于 2015/07/21 15:48 (共 8 段, 翻译完成于 07-23)
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If you are new to Linux then I'm sure you are giving up lots of time choosing Desktop Environment of your Linux Distribution. You are probably thinking to give a try to each one of them but that's very time consuming. Edit - There are other good DEs also That's why I'm reviewing the 5 Best Linux Desktop Environments with the pros & cons. The article gives you what you should know for choosing a DE. So let's get started!

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1. KDE

I wanted to start from #5 but I thought let's put the #1 straight to you. Yeah! That' KDE. Although you are not interested but KDE development was started in 1996 and released its first version in 1998. KDE is the most customizable DE that means you can customize each and everything in this DE.  It is built on modern technologies like Qt. KDE is offered by many popular Linux Distributions, such as, Ubuntu, Linux Mint, OpenSUSE, Fedora, kubuntu, PCLinuxOS and many more. 

KDE is the most customizable Desktop Environment among others. As in other desktop environment you need several plugins, widgets and tweak tools to customize the environment, KDE builds all of the tools and widgets packed in the system settings. With the advanced settings manager everything can be controlled without any third party tool to beautify & tweak the desktop according to the user's wishes and needs.

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KDE's Plasma 5 development is the most advanced DE ever that comes with many improvements, mostly focused on visual experience (better launchers, menus and notifications) and usability across different devices. Plasma is also faster and compatible even with old and low configuration hardware.

Some of the default applications in KDE environment are -- Dolphin (file manager), Konsole (terminal), Kate (text editor),  Gwenview (image viewer),  Okular (document and PDF viewer), Digikam (photo editor and organizer), KMail (email client), Quassel (IRC client), K3b (DVD burning application), Krunner (launcher) and more...

Pros:

The most advanced and powerful Desktop Environment
Highly customizable
Looks modern and sleek
Compatible with Slower/old hardware

Cons:

Some components like Kmail are way too complicated for an average user

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2. MATE

The #2 in list is MATE. MATE (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈmate]) is a desktop environment forked from the now-unmaintained code base of GNOME 2. It is named after the South American plant Yerba mate and tea made from the herb,mate. The use of a new name, instead of GNOME, avoids conflicts with GNOME 3 components. MATE was built by one of the unhappy user who did not like the turn of Gnome 2 toward Gnome shell for the modernization of the Desktop.  

MATE gives the feelings of using the old desktop environment but has got lots of interface improvements over the time. MATE is also very good with low configuration computers, so use MATE if you've an old or slower computer. 

MATE also comes with many popular Linux distributions, such as, Ubuntu, Linux Mint, Mageia, Debian and many more. If you read my post on Release of Ubuntu 15.04 Beta 1, there you read that Ubuntu MATE, the first time is an official release. 

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"Welcome Ubuntu MATE official Release for the first time. Now it'll be easier for the users to keep their software updated, as all of its components are now in Ubuntu repositories."

The applications packed with MATE are Caja (file manager), Pluma (text editor), Atril (document viewer), Eye of MATE (image viewer) and many more. It’s a simple and lightweight DE for users who don’t need all the bells and whistles of other feature-packed DEs.

Pros:

Works fine with old/slower computers
Lightweight Desktop Environment

Cons:

I don't know, If you know please comment below. MATE Just works fine.

3. Cinnamon


The #3 DE in my list is Cinnamon. After MATE, Cinnamon is another Desktop Environment that was built by Linux Mint Team for unhappy users of Gnome. But Cinnamon unlike MATE was built on Gnome 3 technologies. Cinnamon is new and so have been active in development but being new does not make this amazing Desktop Environment less featurable.

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Cinnamon has all the features that DEs like Gnome and Unity don't have. Cinnamon is highly customizable DE and does not require any external plugin, widget and tweak tool to customize the desktop.  Cinnamon can even download and install themes from the settings manager itself, not even need to open up Internet browser. 

With all the amazing and required features, Cinnamon can be very handy for any new user to Linux. Many users quit using Linux because they don't understand the way Linux works but I highly recommend that a newbie must start off with Cinnamon Desktop Environment

Many popular Linux distributions offer their flavors in Cinnamon, such as, Ubuntu, Fedora, OpenSUSE, Gentoo, Arch Linux and Cinnamon is the default DE of Linux Mint. 


Pros:

Extremely polished
Familiar with New users
Makes Gnome more usable by forking some core apps
Highly customizable

Cons:

Could be buggy sometime

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4. Gnome


The #4 in my list is Gnome. Gnome was first released in 1999. Gnome was providing a simple and classic desktop experience without not much options to customize. But in 2011 Gnome introduced new design in GNOME 3 and that traditional desktop environment was replaced with GNOME Shell. And this ended up with dissatisfaction among Gnome users and many developers and this unhappiness caused the creation of many other DEs, such as, MATE and Cinnamon. 

But even after that Gnome prevailed and now being used widely. Gnome have contained the core idea of simple and faster DE and that's why Gnome is still simple and faster. But customizations can be done through installing third parties applications and tools. 

Gnome could be for those users who tend not to tweak the system alot more. That's why Gnome does not even include some simple tweak options like, changing theme and even font. For both of these basic tweaks user would need to install gnome-tweak-tool. So overall Gnome is not much customizable by default but through third party applications/tools.

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Gnome is used as default DE in Fedora and is offered in several popular Linux distributions as flavor, such as, Ubuntu, Debian, OpenSUSE and many more.

Pros:
Simple, easy to use
Functionality can be expanded through extensions

Cons:

Lacks many features found in other desktop environments
Extension management is poor

5. Unity

Unity is a shell developed by Canonical, the company behind Ubuntu. Unity runs on top of Gnome Desktop Environment and uses all core Gnome applications. 

Initially it was developed to run on netbooks to make better use of the screen real estate. But when Gnome decided to go its own way and supposedly didn’t accept some changes proposed by Ubuntu teams, Canonical went ahead and created its own shell, which suited its needs better.

Unity first release came out in 2010 and since then Unity have got several improvements. Today Unity can be installed on other distributions like several other DEs.

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Unity has a different user interface. Unity has a launcher on left side and on top of the launcher the search icon which is also called 'Dash' exist. When a file is sought on Dash, it gives results not only from Hard Disk but from online sources, such  as, Google Drive, Facebook, Picasa, Flick and more. 

Unity also gives options to hide the launcher and show it when touch the sidebar. User can also increase/decrease sensitivities for showing up the launcher menu.

Unity is simple and faster but Unity is does not include much options under System Settings to customize the desktop. For installing themes and customizing different other options, such as, System menu should be visible always or not or 'One click minimize from launcher icon', user need to install third party tools. CCSM and Unity Tweak Tool are very popular customization tools for Unity Desktop Environment

Unlike KDE user is not given option to block/disable notifications in Unity. There are tons of searches on the Web for 'How to disable Unity Notifications'. Although It's possible but quite difficult for a new user. 
Add to that auto-hiding menus and a lack of official support by any major distributions, and Unity becomes extremely counter productive.

Pros:

Intuitive
New technologies like HUD
Customizable by third party applications

Cons:

Poor implementation of notifications
Very little default tools for customization
Inconsistent UI

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评论(67)

Ethan_Sun
Ethan_Sun

引用来自“苗威”的评论

我擦 一直以为unity就是unity3d,原来是俩东西
活活,表示适应unity用了好久
r
rupert
xfce
latentlong
latentlong

引用来自“苍松”的评论

为什么没有mac,Mac不也是Linu啊
Mac基于unix的吧?我记得是这样
苍松
苍松
为什么没有mac,Mac不也是Linu啊
tao_hunter6
tao_hunter6

引用来自“tao_hunter6”的评论

cinnamon是所有新的发行版中除“正统”的GNOME外被采用最多的桌面环境了,这足以说明一切。虽然只是基本达到了 win xp的水平,但未来还有很大的改进空间。unity因为的雄心是要一统桌面和移动终端的UI,但这是一条邪路-mac os x和ios尚未做到的事,win8证明已然失败的道路,继续走下去是死路一条。。。

引用来自“平原君”的评论

unity明显不是要一统UI,只是后端通用,sdk通用,win8是直接把移动ui套在了pc上,而之前的wm是把pc的ui往移动端上套,都玩不转,还是ux必须有所区别,但能做到后端和sdk通用就已经不错了,可以节省开发时间和维护成本

引用来自“tao_hunter6”的评论

你看看魅族刚出的ubuntu手机就知道到底unity是不是为了移动终端搞了个左边栏了。

引用来自“平原君”的评论

难道紧紧因为一个左边栏就能说明ui统一了?ubuntu touch那么多边缘手势,进程切换,都差了好多了。而且touch里的左边栏貌似只是应用的快捷按钮,而不能进行打开程序的切换吧(这个我不太确定,毕竟没玩实际操作过),这个左边栏跟安卓和苹果的底部栏功能一样,但跟pc的还是差很远的,如果这都算统一,那苹果的早统一了

引用来自“tao_hunter6”的评论

mac os x和ios看一眼就能找到不同,unity在桌面和手机上可是一模一样的。。。我自己就刷过,除了针对cpu等设备的内核加载的kernel module部分有不同,其他的完全是一样的。。。你非说这还不是试图要用一个统一的UI“通吃”桌面和移动端,那win8也不是了。win8的错明明就是以为pc用户会抬胳膊“触控”屏幕,可惜那只是移动终端上最好的操作,pc输入还是鼠标键盘为王。。。

引用来自“平原君”的评论

我不太明白你这个完全一样的结论是怎么得出来的。明明touch里有个ubuntu引以为豪的scope功能,这个pc端有个么?还有touch一直主打的边缘手势,这个pc有了么?其实pc和移动统一的最大问题是交互体验,基本完全不同,而ui的同于不同也是要服务于各自平台的交互体验的,win8的问题就是把移动的交互体验挪到了pc上,比如那个上划解锁,傻到家了。
scope就是装个包的事情,有触屏的人都可以用的--不管是手机、pad还是pc。。。
wtry
wtry
有unity为什么没有xfce话说,gnome 3还不错吧!
amita
amita

引用来自“Sonnet”的评论

Unity的丑,真的不是我能接受的,一眼都不想看到
So do I.
getchoco
getchoco
unity不丑啊
我的设置成透明了, 很好看
不过换成arch后用openbox了, 最近又换成了kde5, 很漂亮
孑孑
孑孑
推荐几个用过的轻量桌面环境,要简洁openbox便可,要效率力荐awesome,要美观enlightenment可以一试
麦片海盗
麦片海盗

引用来自“tao_hunter6”的评论

cinnamon是所有新的发行版中除“正统”的GNOME外被采用最多的桌面环境了,这足以说明一切。虽然只是基本达到了 win xp的水平,但未来还有很大的改进空间。unity因为的雄心是要一统桌面和移动终端的UI,但这是一条邪路-mac os x和ios尚未做到的事,win8证明已然失败的道路,继续走下去是死路一条。。。

引用来自“平原君”的评论

unity明显不是要一统UI,只是后端通用,sdk通用,win8是直接把移动ui套在了pc上,而之前的wm是把pc的ui往移动端上套,都玩不转,还是ux必须有所区别,但能做到后端和sdk通用就已经不错了,可以节省开发时间和维护成本
win8意义非凡。。。居然被你说成这样了。。。Ubuntu的老大听你这样说都不知会作何感想。。。
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