Packet Tracer 5.2实验(十五) 网络端口地址转换NAPT配置

长平狐 发布于 2012/08/27 15:52
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一、实验目标

  • 理解NAT网络地址转换的原理及功能;
  • 掌握NAPT的配置,实现局域网访问互联网;

二、实验背景

公司办公网需要接入互联网,公司只向ISP申请了一条专线,该专线分配了一个公网IP地址,配置实现全公司的主机都能访问外网。

三、技术原理

  • NAT将网络划分为内部网络和外部网络两部分,局域网主机利用NAT访问网络时,是将局域网内部的本地地址转换为全局地址(互联网合法的IP地址)后转发数据包;
  • NAT分为两种类型:NAT(网络地址转换)和NAPT(网络端口地址转换IP地址对应一个全局地址)。
  • NAPT:使用不同的端口来映射多个内网IP地址到一个指定的外网IP地址,多对一。
  • NAPT采用端口多路复用方式。内部网络的所有主机均可共享一个合法外部IP地址实现对Internet的访问,从而可以最大限度节约IP地址资源。同时,又可隐藏网络内部的所有主机,有效避免来自Internet的攻击。因此,目前网络中应用最多的就是端口多路复用方式。

四、实验步骤

实验拓扑

1、R1为公司出口路由器,其与ISP路由器之间通过V.35电缆串口连接,DCE端连接在R1上,配置其时钟频率为64000;

2、配置PC机、服务器及路由器接口IP地址;

3、在各路由器上配置静态路由协议,让PC间能相互ping通;

4、在R1上配置NAPT;

5、在R1上定义内外部网络接口;

6、验证主机之间的互通性。

 R1:

Router>enRouter#conf tEnter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.Router(config)#host R1R1(config)#int fa0/0R1(config-if)#ip add 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0R1(config-if)#no shut%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to up%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to upR1(config-if)#exitR1(config)#int s2/0R1(config-if)#ip add 200.1.1.1 255.255.255.0R1(config-if)#no shut%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Serial2/0, changed state to downR1(config-if)#clock rate 64000R1(config-if)#exitR1(config)#R1(config)#R1(config)#R1(config)#%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Serial2/0, changed state to up%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial2/0, changed state to upR1(config)#R1(config)#ip route 200.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 200.1.1.2 //配置静态路由R1(config)#endR1#%SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by consoleR1#show ip routeCodes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static routeGateway of last resort is not setC 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0C 200.1.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial2/0S 200.1.2.0/24 [1/0] via 200.1.1.2R1#R1#R1#R1#R1#R1#conf tEnter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.R1(config)#int fa0/0R1(config-if)#ip nat inside R1(config-if)#exitR1(config)#int s2/0R1(config-if)#ip nat outside R1(config-if)#exitR1(config)#access-list ? < 1-99 > IP standard access list < 100-199 > IP extended access listR1(config)#access-list 1 ? deny Specify packets to reject permit Specify packets to forward remark Access list entry commentR1(config)#access-list 1 permit ? A.B.C.D Address to match any Any source host host A single host addressR1(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.168.1.0 ? A.B.C.D Wildcard bits < cr > R1(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 ? < cr > R1(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 //定义访问控制列表R1(config)#ip nat ? inside Inside address translation outside Outside address translation pool Define pool of addressesR1(config)#ip nat pool ? WORD Pool nameR1(config)#ip nat pool david ? A.B.C.D Start IP addressR1(config)#ip nat pool david 200.1.1.3 ? A.B.C.D End IP addressR1(config)#ip nat pool david 200.1.1.3 200.1.1.3 ? netmask Specify the network maskR1(config)#ip nat pool david 200.1.1.3 200.1.1.3 netmask ? A.B.C.D Network maskR1(config)#ip nat pool david 200.1.1.3 200.1.1.3 netmask 255.255.255.0 ? < cr > R1(config)#ip nat pool david 200.1.1.3 200.1.1.3 netmask 255.255.255.0 R1(config)#ip nat inside ? source Source address translationR1(config)#ip nat inside source ? list Specify access list describing local addresses static Specify static local->global mappingR1(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 ? interface Specify interface for global address pool Name pool of global addressesR1(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 pool ? WORD Name pool of global addressesR1(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 pool david ? overload Overload an address translation < cr > R1(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 pool david overload ? < cr > R1(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 pool david overload R1(config)#endR1#%SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by consoleR1#show ip nat ? statistics Translation statistics translations Translation entriesR1#show ip nat translations //没有主机访问Web Server的时候,没有记录
R1#R1#show ip nat translations //有主机访问Web Server,产生记录Pro Inside global Inside local Outside local Outside globaltcp 200.1.1.3:1026 192.168.1.2:1026 200.1.2.2:80 200.1.2.2:80R1#show ip nat translations //来自1.2和1.3的主机访问Pro Inside global Inside local Outside local Outside globaltcp 200.1.1.3:1026 192.168.1.2:1026 200.1.2.2:80 200.1.2.2:80tcp 200.1.1.3:1025 192.168.1.3:1025 200.1.2.2:80 200.1.2.2:80R1#show ip nat translations Pro Inside global Inside local Outside local Outside globaltcp 200.1.1.3:1026 192.168.1.2:1026 200.1.2.2:80 200.1.2.2:80tcp 200.1.1.3:1027 192.168.1.2:1027 200.1.2.2:80 200.1.2.2:80tcp 200.1.1.3:1025 192.168.1.3:1025 200.1.2.2:80 200.1.2.2:80tcp 200.1.1.3:1024 192.168.1.3:1026 200.1.2.2:80 200.1.2.2:80R1#

R2:

Router>enRouter#conf tEnter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.Router(config)#hostname R2R2(config)#int fa0/0R2(config-if)#ip add 200.1.2.1 255.255.255.0R2(config-if)#no shut%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to up%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to upR2(config-if)#exitR2(config)#int s2/0R2(config-if)#ip add 200.1.1.2 255.255.255.0R2(config-if)#no shut%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Serial2/0, changed state to upR2(config-if)#%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial2/0, changed state to upR2(config-if)#R2(config-if)#R2(config-if)#exitR2(config)#ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 200.1.1.1R2(config)#endR2#%SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by consoleR2#show ip routeCodes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static routeGateway of last resort is not setS 192.168.1.0/24 [1/0] via 200.1.1.1C 200.1.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial2/0C 200.1.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0R2#R2#R2#R2#

PC1:

Packet Tracer PC Command Line 1.0PC>ipconfigIP Address......................: 192.168.1.2Subnet Mask.....................: 255.255.255.0Default Gateway.................: 192.168.1.1PC>ping 200.1.2.2Pinging 200.1.2.2 with 32 bytes of data:Reply from 200.1.2.2: bytes=32 time=15ms TTL=126Reply from 200.1.2.2: bytes=32 time=16ms TTL=126Reply from 200.1.2.2: bytes=32 time=16ms TTL=126Reply from 200.1.2.2: bytes=32 time=15ms TTL=126Ping statistics for 200.1.2.2: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 15ms, Maximum = 16ms, Average = 15msPC>

PC-WEB:


原文链接:http://www.cnblogs.com/mchina/archive/2012/07/24/2606821.html
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