数据库启动之NOMOUNT

长平狐 发布于 2013/09/17 15:11
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1.启动数据库:STARTUP命令后,执行顺序如下

首先使用服务器上的SPFILESID文件启动实例,如未找到,使用服务器上默认的SPFILE启动实例;如未找到默认SPFILE,使用INITSID文件启动实例,如仍未找到,报错。

SYS@bys1>startup;
ORA-01078: failure in processing system parameters
LRM-00109: could not open parameter file '/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/dbs/initaaa.ora'

找到参数文件后,此时ORACLE根据参数文件中的设置创建实例,分配内存,启动后台进程。

可以在STARTUP 命令中使用PFILE选项指定参数文件来改变优先顺序 :startuppfile=c:\orcl\pfile\init.ora


2.startup nomount

只启动实例不打开数据库中任何文件,不打开控制文件,只使用了初始化参数文件。这个过程也是启动数据库实例的过程。即读取参数文件,应用参数启动实例。

在WINDOWS上是ORCLE.EXE初始化,在UNIX/LINUX上是ORACLE可执行文件初始化。在操作系统中查看ORACLE可执行文件:WIN平台dir oracle.exe   或者 UNIX/LINUX平台 file oracle

此状态只有在创建数据库或重建控制文件时使用。此时ORACLE将进行如下工作:

分配SGA配置所有内存缓冲区和相关结构,启动所需全部后台进程,打开报警文件alertSID.log和追踪文件trace;

下面是实现启动的信息

SQL> conn sys/oraclesys as sysdba

已连接到空闲例程。

SQL> startup nomount;

ORACLE 例程已经启动。

Total System Global Area 431038464 bytes

Fixed Size                 1375088 bytes

Variable Size             331351184 bytes

Database Buffers          92274688 bytes

Redo Buffers               6037504 bytes

3.实例启动时ALERT日志文件中的信息

在ALERT日志中可以看到实例启动时后台进程也相应启动,并且给出了PID及OSID信息。PID是进程在数据库内部的标识符编号,OSID代表进程在操作系统上进程编号。

通过数据库v$process视图,查询PID与SPID对应: v$process视图是操作系统到数据库的入口。

其中PID=1的进程是初始化数据库的进程,启动其它进程前即被占用,并在数据库中一直存在。SPID列代表操作上的进程号,通过查询SPID可以在OS中相应查询到进程。比如在操作系统中发现某进程占用高CPU/内存,可以通过进程号的对应找出相应的数据库进程,进行诊断优化。

Latchwait列代表进程当前正在等待的latch信息,Latchspin列记录进程正在通过SPIN进行Latch竞争。ADDR列代表进程地址、进程状态等信息在内存中记录。

Select  addr,pid,spid,username,program,latchwait from v$process;


SunFeb 03 21:50:38 2013

StartingORACLE instance (normal)

LICENSE_MAX_SESSION= 0

LICENSE_SESSIONS_WARNING= 0

Pickedlatch-free SCN scheme 2

Autotuneof undo retention is turned on.

IMODE=BR

ILAT=27

LICENSE_MAX_USERS= 0

SYSauditing is disabled

Startingup:

OracleDatabase 11g Enterprise Edition Release11.2.0.1.0 - Production                          --------------数据库版本

Withthe Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options.

Usingparameter settings in server-side spfile C:\APP\ADMINISTRATOR\PRODUCT\11.2.0\DBHOME_1\DATABASE\SPFILEORCL.ORA

Systemparameters with non-default values:

  processes                = 150

  large_pool_size          = 8M

  memory_target            = 412M

  control_files            ="D:\DISK1\CONTROL01.CTL"                                     --------------------参数文件中的参数

  control_files            ="D:\DISK2\CONTROL02.CTL"

  control_files            ="D:\DISK3\CONTROL03.CTL"

  control_files            ="D:\DISK4\CONTROL04.CTL"

  control_files            ="D:\DISK5\CONTROL05.CTL"

  db_block_size            = 8192

  db_cache_size            = 32M

  db_cache_advice          = "ON"

  compatible               = "11.2.0.0.0"

  log_archive_dest_1       = "location=d:\disk1\offlinelog\mandatory"

  log_archive_dest_2       = "location=d:\disk2\offlinelog\"

  log_archive_dest_3       = "location=d:\disk3\offlinelog\optional"

  log_archive_dest_4       = "location=d:\disk4\offlinelog\optional"

  log_archive_dest_5       = "location=d:\disk5\offlinelog\mandatory"

  log_archive_dest_state_1 = "ENABLE"

  log_archive_min_succeed_dest= 3

  db_recovery_file_dest    ="C:\app\Administrator\flash_recovery_area"

  db_recovery_file_dest_size= 3852M

  undo_tablespace          = "UNDOTBS1"

  remote_login_passwordfile="EXCLUSIVE"

  db_domain                = ""

  dispatchers              = "(PROTOCOL=TCP)(SERVICE=orclXDB)"

  audit_file_dest          ="C:\APP\ADMINISTRATOR\ADMIN\ORCL\ADUMP"

  audit_trail              = "DB"

  db_name                  = "orcl"

  open_cursors             = 300

  diagnostic_dest          = "C:\APP\ADMINISTRATOR"

SunFeb 03 21:50:38 2013

PMONstarted with pid=2, OS id=2396

SunFeb 03 21:50:38 2013

VKTMstarted with pid=3, OS id=2408 at elevated priority

VKTMrunning at (10)millisec precision with DBRM quantum (100)ms                      -----------------------后台进程启动

SunFeb 03 21:50:38 2013

GEN0started with pid=4, OS id=612

SunFeb 03 21:50:38 2013

DIAGstarted with pid=5, OS id=2100

SunFeb 03 21:50:38 2013

DBRMstarted with pid=6, OS id=2332

SunFeb 03 21:50:38 2013

PSP0started with pid=7, OS id=2072

SunFeb 03 21:50:38 2013

DIA0started with pid=8, OS id=2404

SunFeb 03 21:50:38 2013

MMANstarted with pid=9, OS id=2400

SunFeb 03 21:50:38 2013

DBW0started with pid=10, OS id=2356

SunFeb 03 21:50:38 2013

LGWRstarted with pid=11, OS id=2484

SunFeb 03 21:50:38 2013

CKPTstarted with pid=12, OS id=2488

SunFeb 03 21:50:38 2013

SMONstarted with pid=13, OS id=2352

SunFeb 03 21:50:38 2013

RECOstarted with pid=14, OS id=2376

SunFeb 03 21:50:38 2013

MMONstarted with pid=15, OS id=2360

SunFeb 03 21:50:38 2013

MMNLstarted with pid=16, OS id=2512

startingup 1 dispatcher(s) for network address'(ADDRESS=(PARTIAL=YES)(PROTOCOL=TCP))'...

startingup 1 shared server(s) ...

ORACLE_BASEfrom environment = C:\app\Administrator


原文链接:http://blog.csdn.net/q947817003/article/details/11270533
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