task_struct解析(一) 进程状态

长平狐 发布于 2013/06/17 13:13
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task_struct 是内核用来表示进程的,包含进程的所有信息,该结构体定义在incluce\linux\Sched.h里

 

首先介绍一下状态信息


volatile long state

这个字段存储的是进程当前的状态 


=====================================

volatile关键字是一种类型修饰符,用它声明的类型变量表示可以被某些编译器未知的因素更改,比如:操作系统、硬件或者其它线程等。遇到这个关键字声明的变量,编译器对访问该变量的代码就不再进行优化,从而可以提供对特殊地址的稳定访问。

具体参见:http://www.cppblog.com/mzty/archive/2006/08/08/10959.html

=====================================

/*

 * Task state bitmask. NOTE! These bits are also

 * encoded in fs/proc/array.c: get_task_state().

 *

 * We have two separate sets of flags: task->state

 * is about runnability, while task->exit_state are

 * about the task exiting. Confusing, but this way

 * modifying one set can't modify the other one by

 * mistake.

 */

 

下面四种表示进程的状态

#define TASK_RUNNING                0

#define TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE        1

#define TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE        2

#define __TASK_STOPPED        4

#define __TASK_TRACED                8

/* in tsk->exit_state */

#define EXIT_ZOMBIE                16

#define EXIT_DEAD                32

/* in tsk->state again */

#define TASK_DEAD                64

#define TASK_WAKEKILL                128

#define TASK_WAKING                256

#define TASK_STATE_MAX                512

 

 

操作状态的宏

/* Convenience macros for the sake of set_task_state */

#define TASK_KILLABLE                (TASK_WAKEKILL | TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE)

#define TASK_STOPPED                (TASK_WAKEKILL | __TASK_STOPPED)

#define TASK_TRACED                (TASK_WAKEKILL | __TASK_TRACED)

 

/* Convenience macros for the sake of wake_up */

#define TASK_NORMAL                (TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE | TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE)

#define TASK_ALL                (TASK_NORMAL | __TASK_STOPPED | __TASK_TRACED)

 

/* get_task_state() */

#define TASK_REPORT                (TASK_RUNNING | TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE | \

 TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE | __TASK_STOPPED | \

 __TASK_TRACED)

 

#define task_is_traced(task)        ((task->state & __TASK_TRACED) != 0)

#define task_is_stopped(task)        ((task->state & __TASK_STOPPED) != 0)

#define task_is_dead(task)        ((task)->exit_state != 0)

#define task_is_stopped_or_traced(task)        \

((task->state & (__TASK_STOPPED | __TASK_TRACED)) != 0)

#define task_contributes_to_load(task)        \

((task->state & TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE) != 0 && \

 (task->flags & PF_FREEZING) == 0)

 

#define __set_task_state(tsk, state_value)                \

do { (tsk)->state = (state_value); } while (0)

==========================================================

这里do{...}while 的作用是防止在把宏用在if...else语句中时,会导致编译不通过。

具体跟过应用参见http://www.cnblogs.com/flying_bat/archive/2008/01/18/1044693.html

===========================================================

 

#define set_task_state(tsk, state_value) set_mb((tsk)->state, (state_value))

==================================================================

set_mb宏:

#define set_mb(var, value)  do { var = value; mb(); } while (0)

mb()宏:

#define mb()  asm volatile("mfence":::"memory")

mb()宏在不同的系统架构中时不同的,这里取的是x86的架构下的代码

mfence是内存边界的意思,这条指令的作用是在mfence指令前的读写操作当必须在mfence指令后的读写操作前完成。 

在这里的作用是,保证var=value的操作在其后续指令之前完成,防止value值被后面的代码改写

具体内存边界相关内容参见http://www.cnitblog.com/yuhensong/archive/2007/07/31/30994.aspx

====================================================================


设置进程当前状态的宏

/*

 * set_current_state() includes a barrier so that the write of current->state

 * is correctly serialised wrt the caller's subsequent test of whether to

 * actually sleep:

 *

 * set_current_state(TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);

 * if (do_i_need_to_sleep())

 * schedule();

 *

 * If the caller does not need such serialisation then use __set_current_state()

 */

#define __set_current_state(state_value) \

do { current->state = (state_value); } while (0)

#define set_current_state(state_value) \

set_mb(current->state, (state_value))


====================================================================================

这里定义了两个宏:__set_current_state(state_value)和set_current_state(state_value)

前者不带内存屏障,后者是带内存屏障的,即是前者的指令是串行执行的,后者可能是乱序的

=====================================================================================

转自:http://blog.chinaunix.net/uid-21718047-id-3067351.html


原文链接:http://blog.csdn.net/mybelief321/article/details/9048257
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