Python学习——struct模块的pack、unpack示例

晨曦之光 发布于 2012/03/02 18:45
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import struct

pack、unpack、pack_into、unpack_from

 

# ref: http://blog.csdn.net/JGood/archive/2009/06/22/4290158.aspx

import struct

#pack - unpack
print
print '===== pack - unpack ====='

str = struct.pack("ii", 20, 400)
print 'str:', str
print 'len(str):', len(str) # len(str): 8 

a1, a2 = struct.unpack("ii", str)
print "a1:", a1  # a1: 20
print "a2:", a2  # a2: 400

print 'struct.calcsize:', struct.calcsize("ii") # struct.calcsize: 8


#unpack
print
print '===== unpack ====='

string = 'test astring'
format = '5s 4x 3s'
print struct.unpack(format, string) # ('test ', 'ing')

string = 'he is not very happy'
format = '2s 1x 2s 5x 4s 1x 5s'
print struct.unpack(format, string) # ('he', 'is', 'very', 'happy')


#pack
print
print '===== pack ====='

a = 20
b = 400

str = struct.pack("ii", a, b)
print 'length:', len(str) #length: 8
print str
print repr(str) # '/x14/x00/x00/x00/x90/x01/x00/x00'


#pack_into - unpack_from
print
print '===== pack_into - unpack_from ====='
from ctypes import create_string_buffer

buf = create_string_buffer(12)
print repr(buf.raw)

struct.pack_into("iii", buf, 0, 1, 2, -1)
print repr(buf.raw)

print struct.unpack_from("iii", buf, 0)
                                                   

 

 

运行结果:

[work@db-testing-com06-vm3.db01.baidu.com python]$ python struct_pack.py

 

===== pack - unpack =====
str: ?
len(str): 8
a1: 20
a2: 400
struct.calcsize: 8

 

===== unpack =====
('test ', 'ing')
('he', 'is', 'very', 'happy')

 

===== pack =====
length: 8
?
'/x14/x00/x00/x00/x90/x01/x00/x00'

 

===== pack_into - unpack_from =====
'/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00'
'/x01/x00/x00/x00/x02/x00/x00/x00/xff/xff/xff/xff'
(1, 2, -1)

 

==============================================================================

 

Python是一门非常简洁的语言,对于数据类型的表示,不像其他语言预定义了许多类型(如:在C#中,光整型就定义了8种),它只定义了六种基本类型:字符串,整数,浮点数,元组,列表,字典。通过这六种数据类型,我们可以完成大部分工作。但当Python需要通过网络与其他的平台进行交互的时候,必须考虑到将这些数据类型与其他平台或语言之间的类型进行互相转换问题。打个比方:C++写的客户端发送一个int型(4字节)变量的数据到Python写的服务器,Python接收到表示这个整数的4个字节数据,怎么解析成Python认识的整数呢? Python的标准模块struct就用来解决这个问题。

struct模块的内容不多,也不是太难,下面对其中最常用的方法进行介绍:

 struct.pack
struct.pack用于将Python的值根据格式符,转换为字符串(因为Python中没有字节(Byte)类型,可以把这里的字符串理解为字节流,或字节数组)。其函数原型为:struct.pack(fmt, v1, v2, ...),参数fmt是格式字符串,关于格式字符串的相关信息在下面有所介绍。v1, v2, ...表示要转换的python值。下面的例子将两个整数转换为字符串(字节流):

import struct  
 
a = 20 
b = 400 
 
str = struct.pack("ii", a, b)  #转换后的str虽然是字符串类型,但相当于其他语言中的字节流(字节数组),可以在网络上传输  
print 'length:', len(str)  
print str  
print repr(str)  
 
#---- result  
#length: 8  
#    ----这里是乱码  
#'/x14/x00/x00/x00/x90/x01/x00/x00' 
import struct

a = 20
b = 400

str = struct.pack("ii", a, b)  #转换后的str虽然是字符串类型,但相当于其他语言中的字节流(字节数组),可以在网络上传输
print 'length:', len(str)
print str
print repr(str)

#---- result
#length: 8
#    ----这里是乱码
#'/x14/x00/x00/x00/x90/x01/x00/x00'

格式符"i"表示转换为int,'ii'表示有两个int变量。进行转换后的结果长度为8个字节(int类型占用4个字节,两个int为8个字节),可以看到输出的结果是乱码,因为结果是二进制数据,所以显示为乱码。可以使用python的内置函数repr来获取可识别的字符串,其中十六进制的0x00000014, 0x00001009分别表示20和400。

struct.unpack
struct.unpack做的工作刚好与struct.pack相反,用于将字节流转换成python数据类型。它的函数原型为:struct.unpack(fmt, string),该函数返回一个元组。 下面是一个简单的例子:str = struct.pack("ii", 20, 400)  
a1, a2 = struct.unpack("ii", str)  
print 'a1:', a1  
print 'a2:', a2  
 
#---- result:  
#a1: 20  
#a2: 400 
str = struct.pack("ii", 20, 400)
a1, a2 = struct.unpack("ii", str)
print 'a1:', a1
print 'a2:', a2

#---- result:
#a1: 20
#a2: 400
 

struct.calcsize
struct.calcsize用于计算格式字符串所对应的结果的长度,如:struct.calcsize('ii'),返回8。因为两个int类型所占用的长度是8个字节。

struct.pack_into, struct.unpack_from
  这两个函数在Python手册中有所介绍,但没有给出如何使用的例子。其实它们在实际应用中用的并不多。Google了很久,才找到一个例子,贴出来共享一下:

import struct  
from ctypes import create_string_buffer  
 
buf = create_string_buffer(12)  
print repr(buf.raw)  
 
struct.pack_into("iii", buf, 0, 1, 2, -1)  
print repr(buf.raw)  
 
print struct.unpack_from('iii', buf, 0)  
 
#---- result  
#'/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00'  
#'/x01/x00/x00/x00/x02/x00/x00/x00/xff/xff/xff/xff'  
#(1, 2, -1) 
import struct
from ctypes import create_string_buffer

buf = create_string_buffer(12)
print repr(buf.raw)

struct.pack_into("iii", buf, 0, 1, 2, -1)
print repr(buf.raw)

print struct.unpack_from('iii', buf, 0)

#---- result
#'/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00/x00'
#'/x01/x00/x00/x00/x02/x00/x00/x00/xff/xff/xff/xff'
#(1, 2, -1)

  


具体内容请参考Python手册 struct 模块

Python手册 struct 模块:http://docs.python.org/library/struct.html#module-struct

 

转载声明: 本文转自 http://blog.csdn.net/JGood/archive/2009/06/22/4290158.aspx

 

 

Format C Type Python type Standard size Notes
x pad byte no value    
c char string of length 1 1  
b signed char integer 1 (3)
B unsigned char integer 1 (3)
? _Bool bool 1 (1)
h short integer 2 (3)
H unsigned short integer 2 (3)
i int integer 4 (3)
I unsigned int integer 4 (3)
l long integer 4 (3)
L unsigned long integer 4 (3)
q long long integer 8 (2), (3)
Q unsigned long long integer 8 (2), (3)
f float float 4 (4)
d double float 8 (4)
s char[] string    
p char[] string    
P void * integer   (5), (3)

 

Notes:

  1. The '?' conversion code corresponds to the _Bool type defined by C99. If this type is not available, it is simulated using a char. In standard mode, it is always represented by one byte.

    New in version 2.6.

  2. The 'q' and 'Q' conversion codes are available in native mode only if the platform C compiler supports C long long, or, on Windows, __int64. They are always available in standard modes.

    New in version 2.2.

  3. When attempting to pack a non-integer using any of the integer conversion codes, if the non-integer has a __index__() method then that method is called to convert the argument to an integer before packing. If no __index__() method exists, or the call to __index__() raises TypeError, then the __int__() method is tried. However, the use of __int__() is deprecated, and will raise DeprecationWarning.

    Changed in version 2.7: Use of the __index__() method for non-integers is new in 2.7.

    Changed in version 2.7: Prior to version 2.7, not all integer conversion codes would use the __int__() method to convert, and DeprecationWarning was raised only for float arguments.

  4. For the 'f' and 'd' conversion codes, the packed representation uses the IEEE 754 binary32 (for 'f') or binary64 (for 'd') format, regardless of the floating-point format used by the platform.

  5. The 'P' format character is only available for the native byte ordering (selected as the default or with the '@' byte order character). The byte order character '=' chooses to use little- or big-endian ordering based on the host system. The struct module does not interpret this as native ordering, so the 'P' format is not available.

A format character may be preceded by an integral repeat count. For example, the format string '4h' means exactly the same as 'hhhh'.

Whitespace characters between formats are ignored; a count and its format must not contain whitespace though.

For the 's' format character, the count is interpreted as the size of the string, not a repeat count like for the other format characters; for example, '10s' means a single 10-byte string, while '10c' means 10 characters. For packing, the string is truncated or padded with null bytes as appropriate to make it fit. For unpacking, the resulting string always has exactly the specified number of bytes. As a special case, '0s' means a single, empty string (while '0c' means 0 characters).

The 'p' format character encodes a “Pascal string”, meaning a short variable-length string stored in a fixed number of bytes, given by the count. The first byte stored is the length of the string, or 255, whichever is smaller. The bytes of the string follow. If the string passed in to pack() is too long (longer than the count minus 1), only the leading count-1 bytes of the string are stored. If the string is shorter than count-1, it is padded with null bytes so that exactly count bytes in all are used. Note that for unpack(), the 'p' format character consumes count bytes, but that the string returned can never contain more than 255 characters.

For the 'P' format character, the return value is a Python integer or long integer, depending on the size needed to hold a pointer when it has been cast to an integer type. A NULL pointer will always be returned as the Python integer . When packing pointer-sized values, Python integer or long integer objects may be used. For example, the Alpha and Merced processors use 64-bit pointer values, meaning a Python long integer will be used to hold the pointer; other platforms use 32-bit pointers and will use a Python integer.

For the '?' format character, the return value is either True or False. When packing, the truth value of the argument object is used. Either 0 or 1 in the native or standard bool representation will be packed, and any non-zero value will be True when unpacking.


原文链接:http://blog.csdn.net/sunboy_2050/article/details/5974029
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