Android动态壁纸的制作教程

迷途d书童 发布于 2012/02/08 18:01
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本文为原创翻译,原文链接:http://blog.androgames.net/date/2010/01/

动态壁纸是在Android 2.1新增的一个功能。动态壁纸可以添加到Android的桌面,具有交互式的动画背景效果。在本教程中,我们将教会你如何去制作一个交互式的动态壁纸。

动态壁纸是一个Android应用程序,包括一个服务(WallpaperService)。该服务必须包括一个引擎(WallpaperService.Engine)。该引擎是连接用户、桌面、系统之间的桥梁。它也可以绘制桌面壁纸。

首先,必须由内在的Engine类创建一个WallpaperService类。该服务必须在AndroidManifest.xml中声明为"android.service.wallpaper.WallpaperService",这样它才会作为动态壁纸被手机识别。而且还要在服务配置中附加"android.permission.BIND_WALLPAPER"的权限许可:

<service 
    android:name="LiveWallpaperService"
    android:enabled="true"
    android:icon="@drawable/icon"
    android:label="@string/app_name"
    android:permission="android.permission.BIND_WALLPAPER">
    <intent-filter android:priority="1" >
        <action android:name="android.service.wallpaper.WallpaperService" />
    </intent-filter>
    <meta-data 
      android:name="android.service.wallpaper" 
      android:resource="@xml/wallpaper" />
</service>

创建一个XML文件,放置在应用程序目录下的/res/xml/中。它用来描述你的动态壁纸。

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<wallpaper 
    xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"  
    android:thumbnail="@drawable/thumbnail" 
    android:description="@string/description"
    android:settingsActivity="PreferenceActivity"/>

再创建一个xml的属性文件 attrs.xml ,代码如下:

<declare-styleable name="Wallpaper">
    <!-- Component name of an activity that allows the user to modify
         the current settings for this wallpaper. -->
    <attr name="settingsActivity" />
 
    <!-- Reference to a the wallpaper's thumbnail bitmap. -->
    <attr name="thumbnail" format="reference" />
 
    <!-- Name of the author of this component, e.g. Google. -->
    <attr name="author" format="reference" />
 
    <!-- Short description of the component's purpose or behavior. -->
    <attr name="description" />
</declare-styleable>

动态壁纸的服务代码如下:

package net.androgames.blog.sample.livewallpaper;
 
import android.content.SharedPreferences;
import android.service.wallpaper.WallpaperService;
import android.view.MotionEvent;
import android.view.SurfaceHolder;
 
/**
 * Android Live Wallpaper Archetype
 * @author antoine vianey
 * under GPL v3 : http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-3.0.html
 */
public class LiveWallpaperService extends WallpaperService {
 
    @Override
    public Engine onCreateEngine() {
        return new SampleEngine();
    }
 
    @Override
    public void onCreate() {
        super.onCreate();
    }
 
    @Override
    public void onDestroy() {
        super.onDestroy();
    }
 
    public class SampleEngine extends Engine {
 
        private LiveWallpaperPainting painting;
 
        SampleEngine() {
            SurfaceHolder holder = getSurfaceHolder();
            painting = new LiveWallpaperPainting(holder, 
                getApplicationContext());
        }
 
        @Override
        public void onCreate(SurfaceHolder surfaceHolder) {
            super.onCreate(surfaceHolder);
            // register listeners and callbacks here
            setTouchEventsEnabled(true);
        }
 
        @Override
        public void onDestroy() {
            super.onDestroy();
            // remove listeners and callbacks here
            painting.stopPainting();
        }
 
        @Override
        public void onVisibilityChanged(boolean visible) {
            if (visible) {
                // register listeners and callbacks here
                painting.resumePainting();
            } else {
                // remove listeners and callbacks here
                painting.pausePainting();
            }
        }
 
        @Override
        public void onSurfaceChanged(SurfaceHolder holder, int format, 
                int width, int height) {
            super.onSurfaceChanged(holder, format, width, height);
            painting.setSurfaceSize(width, height);
        }
 
        @Override
        public void onSurfaceCreated(SurfaceHolder holder) {
            super.onSurfaceCreated(holder);
            // start painting
            painting.start();
        }
 
        @Override
        public void onSurfaceDestroyed(SurfaceHolder holder) {
            super.onSurfaceDestroyed(holder);
            boolean retry = true;
            painting.stopPainting();
            while (retry) {
                try {
                    painting.join();
                    retry = false;
                } catch (InterruptedException e) {}
            }
        }
 
        @Override
        public void onOffsetsChanged(float xOffset, float yOffset, 
                float xStep, float yStep, int xPixels, int yPixels) {
        }
 
        @Override
        public void onTouchEvent(MotionEvent event) {
            super.onTouchEvent(event);
            painting.doTouchEvent(event);
        }
 
    }
 
}

当壁纸的显示、状态或大小变化是,会调用Engine的onCreate, onDestroy, onVisibilityChanged, onSurfaceChanged, onSurfaceCreatedonSurfaceDestroyed方法。有了这些方法,动态壁纸才能展现出动画效果。而通过设置setTouchEventsEnabled(true),并且调用onTouchEvent(MotionEvent event)方法,来激活触摸事件。

我们在绘画墙纸的时候,也会使用一个单独的绘画线程:

package net.androgames.blog.sample.livewallpaper;
 
import android.content.Context;
import android.graphics.Canvas;
import android.view.MotionEvent;
import android.view.SurfaceHolder;
 
/**
 * Android Live Wallpaper painting thread Archetype
 * @author antoine vianey
 * GPL v3 : http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-3.0.html
 */
public class LiveWallpaperPainting extends Thread {
 
    /** Reference to the View and the context */
    private SurfaceHolder surfaceHolder;
    private Context context;
 
    /** State */
    private boolean wait;
    private boolean run;
 
    /** Dimensions */
    private int width;
    private int height;
 
    /** Time tracking */
    private long previousTime;
    private long currentTime;
 
    public LiveWallpaperPainting(SurfaceHolder surfaceHolder, 
            Context context) {
        // keep a reference of the context and the surface
        // the context is needed if you want to inflate
        // some resources from your livewallpaper .apk
        this.surfaceHolder = surfaceHolder;
        this.context = context;
        // don't animate until surface is created and displayed
        this.wait = true;
    }
 
    /**
     * Pauses the live wallpaper animation
     */
    public void pausePainting() {
        this.wait = true;
        synchronized(this) {
            this.notify();
        }
    }
 
    /**
     * Resume the live wallpaper animation
     */
    public void resumePainting() {
        this.wait = false;
        synchronized(this) {
            this.notify();
        }
    }
 
    /**
     * Stop the live wallpaper animation
     */
    public void stopPainting() {
        this.run = false;
        synchronized(this) {
            this.notify();
        }
    }
 
    @Override
    public void run() {
        this.run = true;
        Canvas c = null;
        while (run) {
            try {
                c = this.surfaceHolder.lockCanvas(null);
                synchronized (this.surfaceHolder) {
                    currentTime = System.currentTimeMillis();
                    updatePhysics();
                    doDraw(c);
                    previousTime = currentTime;
                }
            } finally {
                if (c != null) {
                    this.surfaceHolder.unlockCanvasAndPost(c);
                }
            }
            // pause if no need to animate
            synchronized (this) {
                if (wait) {
                    try {
                        wait();
                    } catch (Exception e) {}
                }
            }
        }
    }
 
    /**
     * Invoke when the surface dimension change
     */
    public void setSurfaceSize(int width, int height) {
        this.width = width;
        this.height = height;
        synchronized(this) {
            this.notify();
        }
    }
 
    /**
     * Invoke while the screen is touched
     */
    public void doTouchEvent(MotionEvent event) {
        // handle the event here
        // if there is something to animate
        // then wake up
        this.wait = false;
        synchronized(this) {
            notify();
        }
    }
 
    /**
     * Do the actual drawing stuff
     */
    private void doDraw(Canvas canvas) {}
 
    /**
     * Update the animation, sprites or whatever.
     * If there is nothing to animate set the wait
     * attribute of the thread to true
     */
    private void updatePhysics() {
        // if nothing was updated :
        // this.wait = true;
    }
 
}

如果桌面壁纸是可见状态下,系统服务通知有新的东西,这个类会优先把它绘制在画布上。如果没有动画了,updatePhysics会通知线程去等待。通常SurfaceView在有两个画布交替绘制的时候,会在画布上绘制上一次......

如果要让你的动态墙纸有配置功能,只要创建一个PreferenceActivity,并将它在wallpaper.xml文件中声明。同时让SharedPreference对象可以找到你的配置选项。

教程就写到这里,如果还有什么不懂,你可以通过Eclipse来浏览完整的源代码:SampleLiveWallpaper

加载中
0
开源中国射线科科长
开源中国射线科科长

android动态壁纸和ios2比起来显得太2了 所以一般用户都不会使用这个耗电又容易瘫痪的壁纸 我有ip2和android  用了2年 ip2的壁纸从来没瘫痪过 但是android经常在退出程序的时候壁纸会花屏 要不就是"循环渲染"  所以说 android市场上基本一直以来都没有高手去做有质量的动态壁纸应用  

一切的根本原因就是WallpaperService.Engine类不是native的  Java语言的确像@弘哥 说的那样 不适合做高质量的本地应用 但是他可以像shell那样去调用API 一切应用说白了 还是要委托给libxx.so才靠谱

p
peerless2012
7之前有动态壁纸?别逗了..............
0
陈程

你说的那几个问题根本就是程序写的有逻辑错,跟语言什么关系...

就算用perl,ruby,tcl,cobol,c#任何一种语言都不应该出现这些问题啊,根本就只是android的平台bug或者是写程序的人的问题吧。

0
赵越超
有办法教我完整的做一遍吗,我的QQ765170680
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