RHEL 5.4 iptables 配置详解

红薯 发布于 2010/04/09 09:37
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本节中将重点介绍下iptables的配置,这可是保证网络安全的利器,iptables是基于内核的防火 墙,内置了filter,nat和mangle三张表,filter负责过滤数据包,nat则涉及到网络地址转换;mangle表则主要应用在修改数据包 内容上,一般很少使用它;默认的规则链有:INPUT,OUTPUT,NAT,POSTROUTING,PREROUTING;下面的两张图片很好的说明 了iptables防火墙的工作机制,关于详细的使用和介绍可以参考man文档

RHEL5.4 iptables配置详解

RHEL5.4 iptables配置详解

一:服务器同客户端网络的设定
[root@server ~]# ifconfig |grep 'inet addr' |cut -d ':' -f 2 |cut -d ' ' -f 1   //查看服务ip和mac地址
10.0.0.200
192.168.100.254
127.0.0.1
[root@server ~]# ifconfig eth1 |grep HWaddr
eth1      Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:29:0C:7C:4E

[root@server ~]# grep 'ip_forward' /etc/sysctl.conf    //开启服务器端路由功能并使其生效
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
[root@server ~]# sysctl -p
[root@server ~]# ping www.idcfree.com -c 2    //测试同公网的连接
PING www.6688.cc (119.75.213.51) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 119.75.213.51: icmp_seq=1 ttl=53 time=71.6 ms
64 bytes from 119.75.213.51: icmp_seq=2 ttl=53 time=67.2 ms

[root@client ~]# ifconfig |grep 'inet addr' |cut -d ':' -f 2 |cut -d ' ' -f 1   //客户端的ip和路由设定
192.168.100.20
127.0.0.1
[root@client ~]# route -n
Kernel IP routing table
Destination     Gateway         Genmask         Flags Metric Ref    Use Iface
192.168.100.0   0.0.0.0         255.255.255.0   U     0      0        0 eth0
169.254.0.0     0.0.0.0         255.255.0.0     U     0      0        0 eth0
0.0.0.0         192.168.100.254 0.0.0.0         UG    0      0        0 eth0


[root@server ~]# ping 192.168.100.20 -c 2     //在服务器端测试同客户端的连接
PING 192.168.100.20 (192.168.100.20) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.100.20: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=5.92 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.100.20: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=1.12 ms

二:设定不允许server ssh到client
[root@client ~]# iptables -L -n    //查看客户端默认的防火墙策略,-n参数代表不进行名字解析;可以看 出默认的系统策略做的相当严格,同时自定义了一条RH-Firewall-1-INPUT规则链,然后在INPUT链中引用,这样的执行效率会相对好些, 同时维护起来也比较容易
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)


target     prot opt source               destination        
RH-Firewall-1-INPUT all -- 0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0          

Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination        
RH-Firewall-1-INPUT all -- 0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0          

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination        

Chain RH-Firewall-1-INPUT (2 references)
target     prot opt source               destination        
ACCEPT     all -- 0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0          
ACCEPT     icmp -- 0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0           icmp type 255
ACCEPT     esp -- 0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0          
ACCEPT     ah   -- 0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0          
ACCEPT     udp -- 0.0.0.0/0            224.0.0.251         udp dpt:5353
ACCEPT     udp -- 0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0           udp dpt:631
ACCEPT     tcp -- 0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0           tcp dpt:631
ACCEPT     all -- 0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0           state RELATED,ESTABLISHED
ACCEPT     tcp -- 0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0           state NEW tcp dpt:22
REJECT     all -- 0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0           reject-with icmp-host-prohibited

[root@client ~]# service iptables stop       //关闭防火墙,这个操作可以用来初始化所有表中链的规则,并将链条的默认策略改为允许,也可以使用iptables -F来清空规则
Flushing firewall rules: [ OK ]
Setting chains to policy ACCEPT: filter [ OK ]
Unloading iptables modules: [ OK ]
[root@client ~]# iptables -A INPUT -s 192.168.100.254 -p tcp --dport 22 -j REJECT //设定server不允许ssh到client,-A表示在链中末尾添加
[root@client ~]# iptables -L -n INPUT    //查看设置好的策略
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination        
REJECT     tcp -- 192.168.100.254      0.0.0.0/0           tcp dpt:22 reject-with icmp-port-unreachable
     
[root@client ~]# service iptables save //使用save命令保存规则,规则文件位于/etc /sysconfig/iptables文件中
Saving firewall rules to /etc/sysconfig/iptables: [ OK ]

[root@server ~]# ssh 192.168.100.20     //服务器端测试
ssh: connect to host 192.168.100.20 port 22: Connection refused
三:允许服务器端ssh到客户端,但需要服务 器端的IP和MAC地址合法
[root@client ~]# iptables -I INPUT -i eth0 -m mac --mac-source 00:0C:29:0C:7C:4E -s 192.168.100.254 -p tcp -m multiport --dports 22,21,20 -j ACCEPT       //-I参数表示在规则链最前面添加策略,iptables的工作机制是从上到下匹配,一旦匹配就根据规则来决定数据包,所以顺序很重要
[root@client ~]# iptables -L -n      //查看规则
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination        
ACCEPT     tcp -- 192.168.100.254            0.0.0.0/0           MAC 00:0C:29:0C:7C:4E multiport dports 22,21,20
REJECT     tcp -- 192.168.100.254      0.0.0.0/0           tcp dpt:22 reject-with icmp-port-unreachable

[root@server ~]# ssh 192.168.100.20     //服务器端测试
The authenticity of host '192.168.100.20 (192.168.100.20)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 3a:5d:33:3c:c5:04:8f:31:19:38:1b:9a:b4:75:4c:51.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?

[root@server ~]# ftp 192.168.100.20
Connected to 192.168.100.20.
220 (vsFTPd 2.0.5)
530 Please login with USER and PASS.
530 Please login with USER and PASS.
KERBEROS_V4 rejected as an authentication type
Name (192.168.100.20:root): ftp
331 Please specify the password.
Password:
230 Login successful.

四:定义默认的策略规则和策略的删除
[root@client ~]# iptables -P INPUT DROP     //定义INPUT链的默认规则为拒绝并查看
[root@client ~]# iptables -L -n
Chain INPUT (policy DROP)
target     prot opt source               destination        


ACCEPT     tcp -- 192.168.100.254            0.0.0.0/0           MAC 00:0C:29:0C:7C:4E multiport dports 22,21,20
REJECT     tcp -- 192.168.100.254      0.0.0.0/0           tcp dpt:22 reject-with icmp-port-unreachable

[root@client ~]# iptables -D INPUT 2      //删除INPUT链中的第二条规则并查看
[root@client ~]# iptables -L -n
Chain INPUT (policy DROP)
target     prot opt source               destination        
ACCEPT     tcp -- 192.168.100.254            0.0.0.0/0           MAC 00:0C:29:0C:7C:4E multiport dports 22,21,20

五:利用iptables实现SNAT
[root@server ~]# iptables -L -t nat -n -v    //查看nat表的策略,-v参数表 示显示详细信息
Chain PREROUTING (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes)
pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination        

Chain POSTROUTING (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes)
pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination        

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes)
pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination

//默认client端是连接不了公网的,因而需要在server端做SNAT,同时客户端的网关需要指向服务器的内网网卡eth1

[root@server ~]# iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -s 192.168.100.0/24 -j SNAT --to-source 10.0.0.200
[root@server ~]# iptables -A FORWARD -i eth0 -o eth1 -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT
[root@server ~]# iptables -A FORWARD -o eth0 -i eth1 -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT

//在FROWARD中这两条规则主要和tcp的三次握手的syn相关,加上之后提高转 发的效率,不加也是可以的

[root@server ~]# iptables -L FORWARD -n -v    //查看配置信息
Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT 237 packets, 18186 bytes)
pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination        
    0     0 ACCEPT     all -- eth0   eth1    0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0           state NEW
    0     0 ACCEPT     all -- eth1   eth0    0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0           state RELATED,ESTABLISHED

[root@client ~]# ping www.g.cn -c 2      //客户端测试
PING www.g.cn (203.208.39.99) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from bi-in-f99.1e100.net (203.208.39.99): icmp_seq=1 ttl=242 time=78.7 ms
64 bytes from bi-in-f99.1e100.net (203.208.39.99): icmp_seq=2 ttl=243 time=81.3 ms
[root@client ~]# traceroute www.g.cn
traceroute to www.g.cn (203.208.39.104), 30 hops max, 40 byte packets
1 bogon (192.168.100.254) 1.243 ms 1.217 ms 1.064 ms
2 bogon (10.0.0.1) 4.884 ms 4.738 ms 5.800 ms
3 122.90.176.1 (122.90.176.1) 68.062 ms 67.964 ms 67.821 ms
4 122.90.10.237 (122.90.10.237) 35.287 ms 64.357 ms 78.671 ms

//若在实际生产环境中,server端使用ADSL方式上网,那也可以使用MASQUERADE参数来实现上述功能
[root@server ~]# iptables -t nat -D POSTROUTING 1
[root@server ~]# iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
[root@server ~]# iptables -t nat -L POSTROUTING -n -v
Chain POSTROUTING (policy ACCEPT 2 packets, 194 bytes)
pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination        
    0     0 MASQUERADE all -- *      eth0    0.0.0.0/0            0.0.0.0/0

六:利用iptables实现DNAT
[root@client ~]# service httpd restart    //在client端配置好Apache服务器
Stopping httpd: [ OK ]
Starting httpd: [ OK ]

[root@client ~]# echo "just one test" > /var/www/html/index.html

[root@server ~]# service httpd status    //验证服务器端没有安装Apache服务
httpd: unrecognized service

RHEL5.4 iptables配置详解

//配置DNAT
[root@server ~]# iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp --dport 80 -j DNAT --to-destination 192.168.100.20
[root@server ~]# iptables -t nat -L -v PREROUTING     
Chain PREROUTING (policy ACCEPT 182 packets, 13431 bytes)
pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination        
    0     0 DNAT       tcp -- any    any     anywhere             anywhere            tcp dpt:http to:192.168.100.20

RHEL5.4 iptables配置详解


[root@server ~]# iptables -t nat -A OUTPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -j DNAT --to-dest 192.168.100.200:3128     //iptables针对透明代理的配置
[root@server ~]# iptables -t nat -L OUTPUT -v      //查看配置   
Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT 1 packets, 140 bytes)
pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination        
    0     0 DNAT       tcp -- any    any     anywhere             anywhere            tcp dpt:http to:192.168.100.200:3128


[root@server ~]# lsmod |grep ip    //查看iptables所加载的模块,配置文件为/etc/sysconfig/iptables-config
ipt_MASQUERADE          7617 1
iptable_nat            11077 1
ip_nat                 21101 2 ipt_MASQUERADE,iptable_nat
ip_conntrack           53281 4 xt_state,ipt_MASQUERADE,iptable_nat,ip_nat
nfnetlink              10713 2 ip_nat,ip_conntrack
iptable_filter          7105 1
ip_tables              17029 2 iptable_nat,iptable_filter
ipt_REJECT              9665 0
ip6t_REJECT             9409 1
ip6table_filter         6849 1
ip6_tables             18053 1 ip6table_filter
…………………………………………………………

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0
J
Johnson

学习,留个记号!谢谢!!!

0
游云

版主乃牛人也,挨踢里这点事是事事精通哦

好好学习学习

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