LAMP(Linux+Apache+Mysql+PHP)环境搭建

zt371 发布于 2009/05/23 12:34
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本文测试环境为CentOS 5.0,如果使用Red Hat AS3/4则不能使用yum命令管理rpm包。
一.系统约定
软件源代码包存放位置 /usr/local/src 源码包编译安装位置(prefix) /usr/local/software_name 脚本以及维护程序存放位置 /usr/local/sbin MySQL 数据库位置 /var/lib/mysql Apache 网站根目录 /home/www/wwwroot Apache 虚拟主机日志根目录 /home/www/logs Apache 运行帐户 www:www 二.系统环境部署及调整
1.检查系统是否正常
# more /var/log/messages (检查有无系统级错误信息)
# dmesg (检查硬件设备是否有错误信息)
# ifconfig(检查网卡设置是否正确)
# ping www.britepic.org (检查网络是否正常)
2.关闭不需要的服务
# ntsysv 以下仅列出需要启动的服务,未列出的服务一律关闭:
atd crond irqbalance microcode_ctl network sendmail sshd syslog 3.重新启动系统
# init 6 4.配置 vim # vi /root/.bashrc 在 alias mv='mv -i' 下面添加一行:alias vi='vim' 保存退出。
# echo 'syntax on' > /root/.vimrc 5.使用yum程序安装所需软件包(以下为标准的RPM包名称)
# yum install ntp vim-enhanced gcc gcc-c++ flex bison autoconf automake bzip2-devel ncurses-devel libjpeg-devel libpng-devel libtiff-devel freetype-devel pam-devel kernel 6.定时校正服务器时钟,定时与中国国家授时中心授时服务器同步
# crontab -e 加入一行:
*/30 * * * * ntpdate 210.72.145.44 7.源代码编译安装所需包
(1) GD2 # cd /usr/local/src # wgethttp://www.libgd.org/releases/oldreleases/gd-2.0.34.tar.gz # tar xzvf gd-2.0.34.tar.gz # cd gd-2.0.34 # ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/gd2 # make # make install (2) LibXML2 # cd /usr/local/src # wget [url=ftp://xmlsoft.org/libxml2/libxml2-2.6.29.tar.gz]ftp://xmlsoft.org/libxml2/libxml2-2.6.29.tar.gz[/url] # tar xzvf libxml2-2.6.29.tar.gz # cd libxml2-2.6.29 # ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/libxml2 # make # make install (3) LibMcrypt # cd /usr/local/src #wgethttp://jaist.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/mcrypt/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.bz2 # tar xjvf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.bz2 # cd libmcrypt-2.5.8 # ./configure –prefix=/usr/local/libmcrypt # make # make install (4) Apache 日志截断程序
# cd /usr/local/src # wgethttp://cronolog.org/download/cronolog-1.6.2.tar.gz # tar xzvf cronolog-1.6.2.tar.gz # cd cronolog-1.6.2 # ./configure –prefix=/usr/local/cronolog # make # make install 8.升级OpenSSL和OpenSSH # cd /usr/local/src # wgethttp://www.openssl.org/source/openssl-0.9.8e.tar.gz # wgethttp://mirror.mcs.anl.gov/openssh/portable/openssh-4.6p1.tar.gz # tar xzvf openssl-0.9.8e.tar.gz # cd openssl-0.9.8e # ./config --prefix=/usr/local/openssl # make # make test # make install # cd .. # tar xzvf openssh-4.6p1.tar.gz # cd openssh-4.6p1 # ./configure \ "--prefix=/usr" \ "--with-pam" \ "--with-zlib" \ "--sysconfdir=/etc/ssh" \ "--with-ssl-dir=/usr/local/openssl" \ "--with-md5-passwords" # make # make install (1)禁用 SSH V1 协议
找到:
#Protocol 2,1 改为:
Protocol 2 (2)禁止root直接登录
此处先建立一个普通系统用户:
# useradd username # passwd username 找到:
#PermitRootLogin yes 改为:
PermitRootLogin no (3)禁用服务器端GSSAPI 找到以下两行,并将它们注释:
GSSAPIAuthentication yes GSSAPICleanupCredentials yes (4)禁用 DNS 名称解析
找到:
#UseDNS yeas 改为:
UseDNS no (5)禁用客户端 GSSAPI # vi /etc/ssh/ssh_config 找到:
GSSAPIAuthentication yes 将这行注释掉。
最后,确认修改正确后重新启动 SSH 服务
# service sshd restart # ssh -v 确认 OpenSSH 以及 OpenSSL 版本正确。
三、编译安装L.A.M.P环境
1. 下载软件
# cd /usr/local/src # wgethttp://apache.mirror.phpchina.com/httpd/httpd-2.2.4.tar.bz2 # wgethttp://download.discuz.net/env/mysql-5.0.27.tar.gz # wgethttp://cn.php.net/distributions/php-5.2.3.tar.bz2 #wgethttp://downloads.phpchina.com/zend/optimizer/3.3.0/ZendOptimizer-3.3.0-linux-glibc21-i386.tar.gz 2. 编译安装MySQL # tar xzvf mysql-5.0.27.tar.gz # cd mysql-5.0.27 # ./configure \ "--prefix=/usr/local/mysql" \ "--localstatedir=/var/lib/mysql" \ (注意:/var 分区是否适合?)
"--with-comment=Source" \ "--with-server-suffix=-Comsenz" \ "--with-mysqld-user=mysql" \ "--without-debug" \ "--with-big-tables" \ "--with-charset=" \ (此处设置MySQL默认字符集)
"--with-collation= " \ (此处设置MySQL校正字符集)
"--with-extra-charsets=all" \ "--with-pthread" \ "--enable-static" \ "--enable-thread-safe-client" \ "--with-client-ldflags=-all-static" \ "--with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static" \ "--enable-assembler" \ "--without-isam" \ "--without-innodb" \ "--without-ndb-debug" # make # make install # useradd mysql # cd /usr/local/mysql # bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql # chown -R root:mysql . # chown -R mysql /var/lib/mysql # cp share/mysql/my-huge.cnf /etc/my.cnf # cp share/mysql/mysql.server /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld # chmod 755 /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld # chkconfig --add mysqld # chkconfig --level 3 mysqld on # /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld start # bin/mysqladmin -u root password 'password_for_root' 3. 编译安装Apache # cd /usr/local/src # tar xjvf httpd-2.2.4.tar.bz2 # cd httpd-2.2.4 # ./configure \ "--prefix=/usr/local/apache2" \ "--with-included-apr" \ "--enable-so" \ "--enable-deflate=shared" \ "--enable-expires=shared" \ "--enable-rewrite=shared" \ "--enable-static-support" \ "--disable-userdir" # make # make install # echo '/usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl start ' >> /etc/rc.local 4. 编译安装PHP # cd /usr/local/src # tar xjvf php-5.2.3.tar.bz2 # cd php-5.2.3 # ./configure \ "--prefix=/usr/local/php" \ "--with-apxs2=/usr/local/apache2/bin/apxs" \ "--with-config-file-path=/usr/local/php/etc" \ "--with-mysql=/usr/local/mysql" \ "--with-libxml-dir=/usr/local/libxml2" \ "--with-gd=/usr/local/gd2" \ "--with-jpeg-dir" \ "--with-png-dir" \ "--with-bz2" \ "--with-freetype-dir" \ "--with-iconv-dir" \ "--with-zlib-dir " \ "--with-openssl=/usr/local/openssl" \ "--with-mcrypt=/usr/local/libmcrypt" \ "--enable-soap" \ "--enable-gd-native-ttf" \ "--enable-memory-limit" \ "--enable-ftp" \ "--enable-mbstring" \ "--enable-exif" \ "--disable-ipv6" \ "--disable-cgi" \ "--disable-cli" # make # make install # mkdir /usr/local/php/etc # cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/php/etc/php.ini 5. 安装Zend Optimizer # cd /usr/local/src # tar xzvf ZendOptimizer-3.2.8-linux-glibc21-i386.tar.gz # ./ZendOptimizer-3.2.8-linux-glibc21-i386/install.sh 安装Zend Optimizer过程的最后不要选择重启Apache。
6. 整合Apache与PHP # vi /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf 找到:
AddType application/x-gzip .gz .tgz 在该行下面添加
AddType application/x-httpd-php .php 找到:
DirectoryIndex index.html 将该行改为
DirectoryIndex index.html index.htm index.php 找到:
#Include conf/extra/httpd-mpm.conf #Include conf/extra/httpd-info.conf #Include conf/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf #Include conf/extra/httpd-default.conf 去掉前面的“#”号,取消注释。
注意:以上 4 个扩展配置文件中的设置请按照相关原则进行合理配置!
修改完成后保存退出。
# /usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl restart 7. 查看确认L.A.M.P环境信息、提升 PHP 安全性
在网站根目录放置 phpinfo.php 脚本,检查phpinfo中的各项信息是否正确。
#vi phpinfo.php 确认 PHP 能够正常工作后,在 php.ini 中进行设置提升 PHP 安全性。
# vi /etc/php.ini 找到:
disable_functions = 设置为:
phpinfo,passthru,exec,system,chroot,scandir,chgrp,chown,escapeshellcmd,escapeshellarg,shell_exec,proc_open,proc_get_status,error_log,ini_alter,ini_alter,ini_restore,dl,pfsockopen,openlog,syslog,readlink,symlink,leak,popepassthru,stream_socket_server 三、服务器安全性设置
1. 设置系统防火墙
# touch /usr/local/sbin/fw.sh 将以下脚本命令(绿色部分)粘贴到 fw.sh 文件中。
#!/bin/bash # Stop iptables service first service iptables stop # Load FTP Kernel modules /sbin/modprobe ip_conntrack_ftp /sbin/modprobe ip_nat_ftp # Inital chains default policy /sbin/iptables -F -t filter /sbin/iptables -P INPUT DROP /sbin/iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT # Enable Native Network Transfer /sbin/iptables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT # Accept Established Connections /sbin/iptables -A INPUT -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT # ICMP Control /sbin/iptables -A INPUT -p icmp -m limit --limit 1/s --limit-burst 10 -j ACCEPT # WWW Service /sbin/iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT # FTP Service /sbin/iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 21 -j ACCEPT # SSH Service /sbin/iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT # chmod 755 /usr/local/sbin/fw.sh # echo '/usr/local/sbin/fw.sh' >> /etc/rc.local # /usr/local/sbin/fw.sh

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苏生不惑
苏生不惑
写得不错,就是有点乱,排版下回更好
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