GCC 4.9 发布,众多新特性和改进

发布于 2014年04月13日
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GCC 4.9 发布了,这是一个全新版本,包含众多新特性、改进和 bug 修复。下载地址:




  • 移除 mudflap 运行时检查器,mudflap 选项保留,但没有任何效果.

  • 对一些很多老的系统和一些不维护的平台的支持在 4.9 版本中声明为过世的,下一个版本将永久删除,例如 Solaris 9

更多移植到  GCC 4.9 的信息请参考 移植指南


  • AddressSanitizer, a fast memory error detector, is now available on ARM.

  • UndefinedBehaviorSanitizer (ubsan), a fast undefined behavior detector,        has been added and can be enabled via -fsanitize=undefined. Various computations will be instrumented to detect undefined behavior at runtime.  UndefinedBehaviorSanitizer is currently available for the C and C++ languages.

  • Link-time optimization (LTO) improvements:Memory usage building Firefox with debug enabled was reduced from 15GB to    3.5GB; link time from 1700 seconds to 350 seconds.

    • Type merging was rewritten. The new implementation is significantly faster      and uses less memory.

    • Better partitioning algorithm resulting in less streaming during  link time.

    • Early removal of virtual methods reduces the size of object files and  improves link-time memory usage and compile time.

    • Function bodies are now loaded on-demand and released early improving  overall memory usage at link time.

    • C++ hidden keyed methods can now be optimized out.

    • When using a linker plugin, compiling with the -flto          option now generates slim objects files (.o) which only          contain intermediate language representation for LTO. Use          -ffat-lto-objects to create files which contain          additionally the object code.  To generate static libraries suitable          for LTO processing, use gcc-ar and         gcc-ranlib; to list symbols from a slim object file use         gcc-nm. (Requires that ar,         ranlib and nm have been compiled with         plugin support.)

  • Inter-procedural optimization improvements:

    • New type inheritance analysis module improving devirtualization.  Devirtualization now takes into account anonymous name-spaces and the  C++11 final keyword.

    • New speculative devirtualization pass (controlled by  -fdevirtualize-speculatively.

    • Calls that were speculatively made direct are turned back to indirect  where direct call is not cheaper.

    • Local aliases are introduced for symbols that are known to be  semantically equivalent across shared libraries improving dynamic  linking times.

  • Feedback directed optimization improvements:

    • Profiling of programs using C++ inline functions is now more reliable.

    • New time profiling determines typical order in which functions are  executed.

    • A new function reordering pass (controlled by  -freorder-functions) significantly reduces  startup time of large applications.  Until binutils support is  completed, it is effective only with link-time optimization.

    • Feedback driven indirect call removal and devirtualization now handle  cross-module calls when link-time optimization is enabled.


  • Version 4.0 of the OpenMP specification is now supported for the C and C++ compilers. The new -fopenmp-simd option can be used to enable OpenMP's SIMD directives, while ignoring other OpenMP directives. The new -fsimd-cost-model= option permits to tune the vectorization cost model for loops annotated with OpenMP and Cilk Plus simd directives; -Wopenmp-simd warns when the current costmodel overrides simd directives set by the user.

  • The -Wdate-time option has been added for the C, C++ and Fortran compilers, which warns when the __DATE__, __TIME__ or __TIMESTAMP__ macros are used. Those macros might prevent bit-wise-identical reproducible compilations.


  • GNAT switched to Ada 2012 instead of Ada 2005 by default.

C family

  • Support for colorizing diagnostics emitted by GCC has been added.    The -fdiagnostics-color=auto will enable it when    outputting to terminals, -fdiagnostics-color=always    unconditionally.  The GCC_COLORS environment variable    can be used to customize the colors or disable coloring.    If GCC_COLORS variable is present in the environment,    the default is -fdiagnostics-color=auto, otherwise    -fdiagnostics-color=never.
       Sample diagnostics output:

        $ g++ -fdiagnostics-color=always -S -Wall test.C    test.C: In function ‘int foo()’:    test.C:1:14: warning: no return statement in function returning non-void [-Wreturn-type]
         int foo () { }                  ^
        test.C:2:46: error: template instantiation depth exceeds maximum of 900 (use -ftemplate-depth= to increase the maximum) instantiating ‘struct X<100>’
         template <int N> struct X { static const int value = X<N-1>::value; }; template struct X<1000>;                                                  ^
        test.C:2:46:   recursively required from ‘const int X<999>::value’    test.C:2:46:   required from ‘const int X<1000>::value’    test.C:2:88:   required from here    test.C:2:46: error: incomplete type ‘X<100>’ used in nested name specifier
  • With the new #pragma GCC ivdep, the user can assert that there are no    loop-carried dependencies which would prevent concurrent execution of    consecutive iterations using SIMD (single instruction multiple data)    instructions.

  • Support for Cilk Plus has been    added and can be enabled with the -fcilkplus option.  Cilk Plus    is an extension to the C and C++ languages to support data and task    parallelism.  The present implementation follows ABI version 1.2; all    features but _Cilk_for have been implemented.


  • ISO C11 atomics (the _Atomic type specifier and  qualifier and the <stdatomic.h> header) are now  supported.

  • ISO C11 generic selections (_Generic keyword) are  now supported.

  • ISO C11 thread-local storage (_Thread_local,  similar to GNU C __thread) is now supported.

  • ISO C11 support is now at a similar level of completeness to ISO  C99 support: substantially complete modulo bugs, extended  identifiers (supported except for corner cases  when -fextended-identifiers is used), floating-point  issues (mainly but not entirely relating to optional C99 features  from Annexes F and G) and the optional Annexes K (Bounds-checking  interfaces) and L (Analyzability).

  • A new C extension __auto_type provides a subset of  the functionality of C++11 auto in GNU C.


  • The G++ implementation of C++1y return type deduction for normal    functions has been updated to conform to    N3638,    the proposal accepted into the working paper.  Most notably, it adds decltype(auto) for    getting decltype semantics rather than the template argument deduction semantics of plain auto:

    int& f();
             auto  i1 = f(); // int
    decltype(auto) i2 = f(); // int&
  • G++ supports C++1y lambda capture initializers:

    [x = 42]{ ... };

    Actually, they have been accepted since GCC 4.5, but now the compiler doesn't warn about them with -std=c++1y, and supports parenthesized and brace-enclosed initializers as well.

  • G++ supports C++1y variable length    arrays.  G++ has supported GNU/C99-style VLAs for a long time, but now    additionally supports initializers and lambda capture by reference.  In    C++1y mode G++ will complain about VLA uses that are not permitted by    the draft standard, such as forming a pointer to VLA type or    applying sizeof to a VLA variable.  Note that it now appears    that VLAs will not be part of C++14, but will be part of a separate    document and then perhaps C++17.

    void f(int n) {
      int a[n] = { 1, 2, 3 }; // throws std::bad_array_length if n < 3
      [&a]{ for (int i : a) { cout << i << endl; } }();
      &a; // error, taking address of VLA
  • G++ supports the C++1y [[deprecated]]    attribute modulo bugs in the underlying [[gnu::deprecated]] attribute.  Classes    and functions can be marked deprecated and a diagnostic message added:

    class A;
    int bar(int n);
    #if __cplusplus > 201103
    class [[deprecated("A is deprecated in C++14; Use B instead")]] A;
    [[deprecated("bar is unsafe; use foo() instead")]]
    int bar(int n);
    int foo(int n);
    class B;
    A aa; // warning: 'A' is deprecated : A is deprecated in C++14; Use B instead
    int j = bar(2); // warning: 'int bar(int)' is deprecated : bar is unsafe; use foo() instead
  • G++ supports C++1y digit separators.    Long numeric literals can be subdivided with a single quote ' to enhance readability:

    int i = 1048576;
    int j = 1'048'576;
    int k = 0x10'0000;
    int m = 0'004'000'000;
    int n = 0b0001'0000'0000'0000'0000'0000;
    double x = 1.602'176'565e-19;
    double y = 1.602'176'565e-1'9;
  • G++ supports C++1y polymorphic lambdas.

    // a functional object that will increment any type
    auto incr = [](auto x) { return x++; };

运行库 (libstdc++)

  •       Improved support for C++11, including:

    • support for <regex>;

    • The associative containers in <map> and              <set> and the unordered associative containers              in <unordered_map> and <unordered_set>              meet the allocator-aware container requirements;

  •       Improved experimental support for the upcoming ISO C++ standard, C++14,       including:

    • fixing constexpr member functions without const;

    • implementation of the std::exchange() utility function;

    • addressing tuples by type;

    • implemention of std::make_unique;

    • implemention of std::shared_lock;

    • making std::result_of SFINAE-friendly;

    • adding operator() to integral_constant;

    • adding user-defined literals for standard library types             std::basic_string, std::chrono::duration,             and std::complex;

    • adding two range overloads to non-modifying sequence oprations             std::equal and std::mismatch;

    • adding IO manipulators for quoted strings;

    • adding constexpr members to <utility>,             <complex>, <chrono>, and some containers;

    • adding compile-time std::integer_sequence;

    • adding cleaner transformation traits;

    • making <functional>s operator functors easier to use             and more generic;

  • An implementation of std::experimental::optional.

  • An implementation of std::experimental::string_view.

  • The non-standard function std::copy_exception has been deprecated        and will be removed in a future version. std::make_exception_ptr        should be used instead.


  • Compatibility notice:

    • Note that the argument passing ABI has changed for scalar dummy    arguments of type INTEGER, REAL,  COMPLEX and LOGICAL, which have  both the VALUE and the OPTIONAL  attribute.

    • Due to the support of finalization, the virtual table associated          with polymorphic variables has changed. Therefore, code containing          CLASS should be recompiled, including all files which          define derived types involved in the type definition used by          polymorphic variables. (Note: Due to the incremented module version,          trying to mix old code with new code will usually give an error          message.)

    • Module files: The version of the module files (.mod)        has been incremented; additionally, module files are now compressed.        Fortran MODULEs compiled by earlier GCC versions have        to be recompiled, when they are USEd by files compiled        with GCC 4.9, because GCC 4.9 is not able to read .mod        files of earlier GCC versions; attempting to do so gives an error        message. Note: The ABI of the produced assembler data itself has not        changed: object files and libraries are fully compatible to older        versions. (Except for the next items.)

    • ABI changes:

    • GNU Fortran no longer deallocates allocatable variables or        allocatable components of variables declared in the main program. Since        Fortran 2008, the standard explicitly states that variables declared        in the Fortran main program automatically have the SAVE        attribute.

    • When opening files, the close-on-exec flag is set if the system        supports such a feature. This is generally considered good practice        these days, but if there is a need to pass file descriptors to child        processes the parent process must now remember to clear the        close-on-exec flag by calling fcntl(), e.g. via        ISO_C_BINDING, before executing the child process.

  • The deprecated command-line option -fno-whole-file      has been removed. (-fwhole-file is the default since      GCC 4.6.) -fwhole-file/-fno-whole-file      continue to be accepted but do not influence the code generation.

  • The compiler no longer unconditionally warns      about DO loops with zero iterations.  This warning is now      controlled by the -Wzerotrips option, which is implied by      -Wall.

  • The new NO_ARG_CHECK attribute of the !GCC$ directive can be used to disable the      type-kind-rank (TKR) argument check for a dummy argument. The feature      is similar to ISO/IEC TS 29133:2012's TYPE(*), except that      it additionally also disables the rank check. Variables with      NO_ARG_CHECK have to be dummy arguments and may only be      used as argument to ISO_C_BINDING's C_LOC      and as actual argument to another NO_ARG_CHECK dummy      argument; also the other constraints of TYPE(*) apply.      The dummy arguments should be declared as scalar or assumed-size      variable of type type(*) (recommended) – or of      type integer, real, complex      or logical. With NO_ARG_CHECK, a pointer      to the data without further type or shape information is passed,      similar to C's void*. Note that also TS 29113's      type(*),dimension(..) accepts arguments of any type and      rank; contrary to NO_ARG_CHECK assumed-rank arguments      pass an array descriptor which contains the array shape and stride      of the argument.

  • Fortran 2003:

    • Finalization is now supported. Note that finalization is currently        only done for a subset of the situations in which it should occur.

    • Experimental support for scalar character components with        deferred length (i.e. allocatable string length) in derived types has        been added. (Deferred-length character variables are supported since        GCC 4.6.)

  • Fortran 2008:

    • When STOP or ERROR STOP is used to terminate        the execution and any exception (but inexact) is signaling, a warning is        printed to ERROR_UNIT, indicating which exceptions are        signaling. The -ffpe-summary= command-line option can be used to fine-tune        for which exception the warning should be shown.

    • Rounding on input (READ) is now handled on systems where        strtod honours the rounding mode. (For output, rounding is        supported since GCC 4.5.) Note that for input, the        compatible rounding mode is handled as nearest        (i.e., for a tie, rounding to an even last significant        [cf. IEC 60559:1989] – while compatible rounds away        from zero for a tie).


  • GCC 4.9 provides a complete implementation of the Go 1.2.1      release.



  • The ARMv8-A crypto and CRC instructions are now supported through       intrinsics. These are enabled when the architecture supports these       and are available through the -march=armv8-a+crc       and -march=armv8-a+crypto options.

  • Initial support for ILP32 has now been added to the       compiler. This is now available through the command line option       -mabi=ilp32. Support for ILP32 is       considered experimental as the ABI specification is still beta.

  • Coverage of more of the ISA including the SIMD extensions has       been added. The Advanced SIMD intrinsics have also been improved.

  • The new local register allocator (LRA) is now on by default       for the AArch64 backend.

  • The REE (Redundant extension elimination) pass has now been enabled       by default for the AArch64 backend.

  • Tuning for the Cortex-A53 and Cortex-A57 has been improved.

  • Initial big.LITTLE tuning support for the combination of Cortex-A57       and Cortex-A53 was added through the -mcpu=cortex-a57.cortex-a53       option.

  • A number of structural changes have been made to both the ARM       and AArch64 backends to facilitate improved code-generation.


  • Use of Advanced SIMD (Neon) for 64-bit scalar computations has been disabled by default. This was found to generate better code in only a small number of cases. It can be turned back on with the -mneon-for-64bits option.

  • Further support for the ARMv8-A architecture, notably implementing       the restriction around IT blocks in the Thumb32 instruction set has       been added. The -mrestrict-it option can be used with       -march=armv7-a or the -march=armv7ve options       to make code generation fully compatible with the deprecated instructions       in ARMv8-A.

  • Support has now been added for the ARMv7ve variant of the       architecture. This can be used by the -march=armv7ve option.

  • The ARMv8-A crypto and CRC instructions are now supported through       intrinsics and are available through the -march=armv8-a+crc       and mfpu=crypto-neon-fp-armv8 options.

  • LRA is now on by default for the ARM target. This can be turned off       using the -mno-lra option. This option is purely       transitionary command line option and will be removed in a future       release. We are interested in any bug reports regarding functional and       performance regressions with LRA.

  • A new option -mslow-flash-data to improve performance       of programs fetching data on slow flash memory has now been       introduced for the ARMv7-M profile cores.

  • A new option -mpic-data-is-text-relative for targets       that allows data segments to be relative to text segments has       been added. This is on by default for all targets except VxWorks RTP.

  • A number of infrastructural changes have been made to both the ARM       and AArch64 backends to facilitate improved code-generation.

  • GCC now supports Cortex-A12 and the Cortex-R7 through the       -mcpu=cortex-a12 and -mcpu=cortex-r7 options.

  • GCC now has tuning for the Cortex-A57 and Cortex-A53       through the -mcpu=cortex-a57 and -mcpu=cortex-a53       options.

  • Initial big.LITTLE tuning support for the combination of Cortex-A57       and Cortex-A53 was added through the -mcpu=cortex-a57.cortex-a53       option. Similar support was added for the combination of       Cortex-A15 and Cortex-A7 through the -mcpu=cortex-a15.cortex-a7       option.

  • Further performance optimizations for the Cortex-A15 and the       Cortex-M4 have been added.

  • A number of code generation improvements for Thumb2 to reduce code       size when compiling for the M-profile processors.


  • Intel AVX-512 support was added to GCC.  That includes inline      assembly support, new registers and extending existing ones,      new intrinsics (covered by corresponding testsuite), and basic      autovectorization.  AVX-512 instructions are available via      the following GCC switches: AVX-512 foundation instructions:      -mavx512f, AVX-512 prefetch instructions: -mavx512pf,      AVX-512 exponential and reciprocal instructions: -mavx512er,      AVX-512 conflict detection instructions: -mavx512cd.

  • It is now possible to call x86 intrinsics from select functions in      a file that are tagged with the corresponding target attribute without      having to compile the entire file with the -mxxx option.      This improves the usability of x86 intrinsics and is particularly useful      when doing Function Multiversioning.

  • GCC now supports the new Intel microarchitecture named Silvermont      through -march=silvermont.

  • GCC now supports the new Intel microarchitecture named Broadwell      through -march=broadwell.

  • Optimizing for other Intel microarchitectures have been renamed      to -march=nehalem, westmere,      sandybridge, ivybridge,      haswell, bonnell.

  • -march=generic has been retuned for better support of      Intel core and AMD Bulldozer architectures.  Performance of AMD K7, K8,      Intel Pentium-M, and Pentium4 based CPUs is no longer considered important      for generic.

  • -mtune=intel can now be used to generate code running      well on the most current Intel processors, which are Haswell      and Silvermont for GCC 4.9.

  • Support to encode 32-bit assembly instructions in 16-bit format      is now available through the -m16 command-line option.

  • Better inlining of memcpy and memset that is aware of value ranges and produces shorter alignment prologues.

  • -mno-accumulate-outgoing-args is now honored when unwind      information is output.  Argument accumulation is also now turned off      for portions of programs optimized for size.

  • Support for new AMD family 15h processors (Excavator core)        is now available through the -march=bdver4 and        -mtune=bdver4 options.


  • A new command-line option -mcpu= has been added to the MSP430 backend.    This option is used to specify the ISA to be used.  Accepted values are    msp430 (the default), msp430x and msp430xv2.  The ISA is no longer deduced    from the -mmcu= option as there are far too many different MCU names.  The    -mmcu= option is still supported, and this is still used to select linker    scripts and generate a C preprocessor symbol that will be recognised by the    msp430.h header file.


  • A new nds32 port supports the 32-bit architecture from Andes      Technology Corporation.

  • The port provides initial support for the V2, V3, V3m      instruction set architectures.

Nios II

  • A port for the Altera Nios II has been contributed by      Mentor Graphics.

PowerPC / PowerPC64 / RS6000

  • GCC now supports Power ISA 2.07, which includes support for Hardware    Transactional Memory (HTM), Quadword atomics and several VMX and VSX    additions, including Crypto, 64-bit integer, 128-bit integer and    decimal integer operations.

  • Support for the POWER8 processor is now available through the    -mcpu=power8 and -mtune=power8 options.

  • The libitm library has been modified to add a HTM fastpath that    automatically uses POWER's HTM hardware instructions when it is    executing on a HTM enabled processor.

  • Support for the new powerpc64le-linux platform has been added.    It defaults to generating code that conforms to the ELFV2 ABI.

S/390, System z

  • Support for the Transactional Execution Facility included with      the IBM zEnterprise zEC12 processor has been added.  A set of      GCC style builtins as well as XLC style builtins are provided.      The builtins are enabled by default when using      the -march=zEC12 option but can explicitly be      disabled with -mno-htm.      Using the GCC builtins also libitm supports hardware      transactions on S/390.

  • The hotpatch features allows to prepare functions for      hotpatching.  A certain amount of bytes is reserved before the      function entry label plus a NOP is inserted at its very      beginning to implement a backward jump when applying a patch.      The feature can either be enabled via command line      option -mhotpatch for a compilation unit or can be      enabled per function using the hotpatch      attribute.

  • The shrink wrap optimization is now supported on S/390 and      enabled by default.

  • A major rework of the routines to determine which registers      need to be saved and restored in function prologue/epilogue now      allow to use floating point registers as save slots.  This will      happen for certain leaf function with -march=z10      or higher.

  • The LRA rtl pass replaces reload by default on S/390.


  • The port now allows to specify the RX100, RX200, and RX600 processors      with the command line options -mcpu=rx100, -mcpu=rx200 and -mcpu=rx600.


  • Minor improvements to code generated for integer arithmetic and code    that involves the T bit.

  • Added support for the SH2A clips and clipu    instructions.  The compiler will now try to utilize them for min/max    expressions such as max (-128, min (127, x)).

  • Added support for the cmp/str instruction through built-in    functions such as __builtin_strlen.  When not optimizing for    size, the compiler will now expand calls to e.g. strlen as an    inlined sequences which utilize the cmp/str instruction.

  • Improved code generated around volatile memory loads and stores.

  • The option -mcbranchdi has been deprecated.  Specifying it    will result in a warning and will not influence code generation.

  • The option -mcmpeqdi has been deprecated.  Specifying it    will result in a warning and will not influence code generation.

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本文标题:GCC 4.9 发布,众多新特性和改进




"新平台的支持"是不是如果用这些硬件 就不需要制作交叉编译链了呢?


这是两个概念吧, 新平台的意思是 比如你用arm处理器的电脑 可以直接安装gcc来本地编译并运行程序.
交叉编译是在一个平台编译, 然后再另一个平台运行


恩 多谢您的指点 我的想法是能不能像golang那样: 安装了之后直接使用5g 6g 8g来生成不同平台的代码















clang的错误诊断提示确实好了很多 其他暂时没有发现


还只是RC 正式版还有些日子,TMD 还有个4.10.x 5.0若干年后再见



"新平台的支持"是不是如果用这些硬件 就不需要制作交叉编译链了呢?


这是两个概念吧, 新平台的意思是 比如你用arm处理器的电脑 可以直接安装gcc来本地编译并运行程序.
交叉编译是在一个平台编译, 然后再另一个平台运行

恩 多谢您的指点 我的想法是能不能像golang那样: 安装了之后直接使用5g 6g 8g来生成不同平台的代码


還只是rc版,正式可能是週一才發佈。 參見 http://permalink.gmane.org/gmane.comp.gcc.devel/135470